Table 1

Characteristics and outcomes of patients at admission

Patients with COVID-19 (n=412)
Age at admission, years66 (55–76)
Males, n (%)280 (68.0)
SARS-COV-2-positive swab, n (%)412 (100.0)
PaO2/FiO2 at admission, mm Hg262 (140–343)
PaO2/FiO2 severity, n (%)

≤100 mm Hg
64 (15.5)
 101–200 mm Hg90 (21.9)
 201–300 mm Hg101 (24.4)
 >300, mm Hg157 (38.2)
Respiratory support at admission, n (%)
 Room air125 (30.3)
 Nasal cannulae93 (22.6)
 Venturi mask78 (18.9)
 Reservoir mask68 (16.5)
 CPAP40 (9.7)
 NIV5 (1.2)
 IMV3 (0.7)
Blood count and biochemistry
 Haemoglobin, g/L
 (n=401)
13.4 (12.4–14.6)
 Platelets, per 109/μL
 (n=401)
203 (156–270)
 Platelets <100 per 109/μL, n (%)
 (n=401)
17 (4.1)
 White blood cells, per 109/μL
 (n=401)
6.7 (5.1–9.4)
 White blood cells <4.0 per 109/μL, n (%) (n=401)45 (10.9)
 Neutrophils, per 109/μL
 (n=401)
5.1 (3.3–8.1)
 Neutrophils <1.5 per 109/μL, n (%)
 (n=401)
7 (1.7)
 Lymphocytes, per 109/μL
 (n=401)
0.98 (0.67–1.33)
 Lymphocytes <1.0 per 109/μL, n (%)
 (n=401)
189 (45.9)
 Lymphocytes <0.5 per 109/μL, n (%)
 (n=401)
44 (10.7)
 Blood urea nitrogen, mg/dL
 (n=372)
37.5 (27–56)
 Creatinine, mg/dL
 (n=401)
0.93 (0.75–1.19)
 Creatinine >1.2 mg/dL, n (%)
 (n=401)
95 (23.1)
 D-dimer, mg/L FEU
 (n=400)
890.5 (470–2157)
 D-dimer ≥1000 mg/L FEU, n (%)
 (n=195)
140 (34.0)
 Troponin T, ng/L
 (n=125)
13 (7.0–22.4)
 C reactive protein, mg/L
 (n=400)
84.6 (36.2–158.0)
 Albumin, g/L
 (n=151)
28 (23–35)
 Interleukin-6 pg/mL
 (n=83)
86 (31–693)
 Ferritin, μg/L
 (n=145)
1063 (408–2145)
Comorbidities
Cardiovascular diseases
 Any cardiovascular disease*, n (%)207 (50.2)
 Hypertension, n (%)160 (38.8)
 Arrhythmia, n (%)49 (11.9)
 Ischaemic heart disease, n (%)43 (10.4)
 Vasculopathy, n (%)32 (7.8)
 Heart failure, n (%)17 (4.1)
 Valvulopathy, n (%)15 (3.6)
Other
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%)69 (16.8)
 Endocrinology disease, n (%)57 (13.9)
 Neurological disease, n (%)49 (11.9)
 Immune depression, n (%)39 (9.5)
 Hypothyroidism, n (%)32 (7.8)
 Kidney disease, n (%)31 (7.5)
 Orthopaedic disease, n (%)31 (7.5)
 Gastrointestinal disease, n (%)28 (6.8)
 Severe obesity, n (%)26 (6.3)
 COPD, n (%)25 (6.1)
 CKD, n (%)25 (6.1)
 BPH, n (%)25 (6.1)
 Active solid cancer, n (%)20 (4.9)
 Previous cancer, n (%)18 (4.4)
 Stroke, n (%)17 (4.1)
 Other neurological disease, n (%)14 (3.4)
 Asthma, n (%)13 (3.2)
Chronic treatments
 ACEi at admission, n (%)59 (14.3)
 ACEi name, n (%)34 (56.7)
16 (26.7)
3 (5.0)
3 (5.0)
2 (3.3)
1 (1.7)
1 (1.7)
 ARBs, n (%)61 (14.8)
 ARB name, n (%)25 (39.7)
11 (17.5)
11 (17.5)
10 (15.9)
6 (9.5)
 ACEi or ARBs, n (%)119 (28.9)
In-hospital treatments
 Hydroxychloroquine, n (%)336 (81.6)
 Lopinavir/Ritonavir, n (%)242 (58.7)
 Corticosteroids, n (%)105 (25.5)
 LMWH, n (%)249 (60.4)
 Tocilizumab, n (%)88 (21.6)
 Experimental drugs, n (%)†3 (0.7)
Outcomes
 CPAP during hospitalisation, n (%)176 (42.7)
 CPAP max PEEP10 (10.0–12.5)
 Discharge at home, n (%)180 (43.7)
 Discharge to other facility, n (%)41 (10.0)
 In-hospital mortality, n (%)105 (25.5)
 Intubation, n (%)36 (8.7)
 Still hospitalised, n (%)50 (12.1)
  • Demographic, clinical characteristics, respiratory failure parameters at admission and clinical outcomes in 412 patients hospitalised with COVID-19 pneumonia. Data are expressed as frequencies or medians (IQR). Comorbidities with ≥3% prevalence were reported. A complete list of comorbidities is reported in table 1 of the online supplemental file. Missing values, if present, are reported next to each variable.

  • *At least one of the following: hypertension, arrhythmia, ischaemic heart disease, vasculopathy, heart failure, valvulopathy.

  • †Remdesivir.

  • ACEi, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BPH, benign prostatic hyperplasia; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; FEU, fibrinogen-equivalent unit; IMV, invasive mechanical ventilation; LMWH, low molecular weight heparin; NIV, non-invasive ventilation; PaO2/FiO2, partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio; PEEP, positive end expiratory pressure.