Table 1

Descriptive statistics for study variables

Variable descriptionObservationsMeanSDMinimumMaximum
Health expenditure variables
 Public health grant: expenditure per person, £, 2013/201415252.625.218.5186.2
 Healthcare spend per person, £, 2013/20141511152.175.81019.91479.1
Mortality variable
 Standardised years of life lost rate, 2013/2014/2015151443.385.0267.5775.9
Instruments for expenditure
 Distance from target (public health)1521.06670.53620.53926.6247
 Market Forces Factor (public health)1521.01220.07900.91511.2076
 Distance from target (healthcare: total)1521.00550.05150.92821.2250
 Age index (healthcare: prescribing)1520.97760.12830.64221.3007
 Market Forces Factor (healthcare: HCHS)1521.00630.06430.93191.1416
Socioeconomic controls
 Proportion of all residents born outside the European Union1520.12810.11470.01440.5060
 Proportion of population in white ethnic group1520.83640.16260.28970.9882
 Proportion of population providing unpaid care1520.10080.01380.06510.1289
 Proportion of population aged 16–74 with no qualifications1520.24690.06060.07200.3874
 Proportion of households without a car1520.28620.12480.08990.6940
 Proportion of households that are owner occupied1520.61900.11520.26110.8086
 Proportion of households that are one pensioner households, 20111520.12060.02080.05960.1667
 Proportion of households that are lone parent households with dependent children1520.07450.01850.02080.1436
 Proportion of population aged 16–74 that are permanently sick1520.04240.01490.00860.0879
 Proportion of those aged 16–74 that are long-term unemployed1520.01830.00580.00430.0367
 Proportion of those aged 16–74 in employment that are working agriculture1520.00640.00990.00030.0572
 Proportion of those aged 16–74 in managerial and professional occupations1520.31140.07690.18350.6674
 Index of Multiple Deprivation (2010)15223.07538.60405.446643.4465