Table 3

Association between MVM usage and self-reported overall health in sociodemographic subgroups

GroupSelf-rated overall health as excellent, very good or good, % (95% CI*),
MVM Non-Users
Self-rated overall health as excellent, very good or good, % (95% CI*), MVM UsersAdjusted effect of MVM usage on self-reported health, OR (95% CI*)†FDR adjusted p value‡
Age, years
 18–4492.3 (91.1 to 93.5)94.2 (93.6 to 94.8)1.3 (1.0 to 1.6)0.03
 45–6479.9 (77.8 to 82.1)85.3 (84.2 to 86.4)1.3 (1.1 to 1.6)0.009
 ≥6577.2 (73.8 to 80.5)82.0 (80.6 to 83.4)1.2 (1.0 to 1.5)0.06
Race
 White85.9 (84.7 to 87.2)89.1 (88.5 to 89.7)1.3 (1.1 to 1.7)0.009
 Non-white80.0 (77.2 to 82.7)84.2 (82.8 to 85.6)1.3 (1.1 to 1.5)0.007
Sex
 Female84.0 (82.5 to 85.4)88.1 (87.4 to 88.9)1.2 (1.1 to 1.4)0.009
 Male85.9 (84.2 to 87.7)88.4 (87.5 to 89.3)1.3 (1.1 to 1.6)0.009
Family income relative to federal poverty level, % (95% CI)
 <10071.7 (68.0 to 75.4)75.6 (73.1 to 78.1)1.4 (1.1 to 1.8)0.007
 100–19976.4 (73.6 to 79.2)80.7 (79.0 to 82.4)1.4 (1.1 to 1.7)0.007
 200–29984.8 (82.1 to 87.5)87.3 (85.9 to 88.6)1.3 (1.0 to 1.7)0.04
 300–39989.6 (86.4 to 92.7)91.0 (89.6 to 92.4)1.3 (0.9 to 2.0)0.15
 ≥40094.8 (93.5 to 96.1)95.2 (94.6 to 95.8)1.1 (0.8 to 1.6)0.23
Education
 Did not graduate high school67.2 (63.1 to 71.3)71.9 (69.7 to 74.2)1.4 (1.1 to 1.9)0.01
 High school graduate84.1 (82.6 to 85.5)86.7 (85.9 to 87.4)1.2 (1.0 to 1.4)0.01
 College graduate or higher93.8 (92.4 to 95.1)95.3 (94.7 to 95.9)1.4 (1.0 to 1.9)0.03
  • *All confidence intervals were computed based on a Rao-Scott-scaled χ2 distribution for the loglikelihood from a binomial distribution using the Survey package in R.

  • †Estimates were produced after adjusting for age, sex, race, region, education level, income, employment status, health insurance status, presence of child in household, marital status, unmet medical care due to cost in the past year, and not seeing a health professional in office in the past 2 weeks.

  • ‡FDR-adjusted p values were computed using the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure; p value was defined using a multivariate regression model controlling for age, sex, race, region, education level, income, employment status, health insurance status, presence of child in household, marital status, unmet medical care due to cost in the past year, and not seeing a health professional in office in the past 2 weeks.

  • FDR, false discovery rate; MVM, multivitamin and multimineral.