Table 3

Hazard ratios for association between handgrip strength and metabolic syndrome and its components in men

Handgrip strength per body weight (kg/kg)
Quartile 4Quartile 3Quartile 2Quartile 1P for trend
(0.73–1.17, n=461)(0.65–0.72, n=461)(0.57–0.64, n=461)(0.15–0.56, n=462)
Person-years1838.81834.41836.31837.1
New-onset MetS30 (6.5)50 (10.8)66 (14.3)68 (14.8)
 Model 11 (reference)1.77 (1.13, 2.73)2.19 (1.43, 3.33)2.51 (1.63, 3.84)<0.001
 Model 21 (reference)1.67 (1.06, 2.64)2.13 (1.38, 3.28)2.36 (1.51, 3.69)<0.001
 Model 31 (reference)1.49 (0.95, 2.34)1.67 (1.08, 2.59)1.76 (1.12, 2.78)<0.001
MetS components
Abdominal obesity48 (10.4)82 (17.7)108 (23.4)130 (28.2)
 Model 11 (reference)2.07 (1.45, 2.96)2.60 (1.84, 3.66)3.63 (2.58, 5.10)<0.001
 Model 21 (reference)1.96 (1.37, 2.83)2.45 (1.73, 3.27)3.32 (2.34, 4.71)<0.001
 Model 31 (reference)1.50 (1.04, 2.16)1.56 (1.09, 2.24)1.80 (1.25, 2.59)<0.001
Elevated TG78 (16.9)78 (16.9)95 (20.6)86 (18.7)
 Model 11 (reference)1.19 (0.87, 1.63)1.38 (1.02, 1.87)1.43 (1.04, 1.96)0.006
 Model 21 (reference)1.16 (0.84, 1.60)1.38 (1.01, 1.88)1.39 (1.00, 1.93)0.006
 Model 31 (reference)1.10 (0.80, 1.52)1.29 (0.94, 1.76)1.31 (0.94, 1.82)0.024
Decreased HDL48 (10.4)55 (11.9)60 (13.0)63 (13.7)
 Model 11 (reference)1.29 (0.87, 1.90)1.30 (0.89, 1.91)1.47 (1.00, 2.17)0.009
 Model 21 (reference)1.10 (0.74, 1.65)1.19 (0.80, 1.76)1.29 (0.86, 1.92)0.02
 Model 31 (reference)1.08 (0.73, 1.61)1.15 (0.78, 1.71)1.22 (0.81, 1.83)0.054
High blood pressure157 (34.0)195 (42.2)228 (49.5)199 (43.2)
 Model 11 (reference)1.28 (1.04, 1.58)1.35 (1.10, 1.66)1.15 (0.93, 1.43)0.195
 Model 21 (reference)1.28 (1.03, 1.59)1.31 (1.05, 1.62)1.11 (0.89, 1.39)0.28
 Model 31 (reference)1.26 (1.01, 1.56)1.27 (1.03, 1.57)1.06 (0.85, 1.33)0.551
Elevated FPG128 (27.8)132 (28.6)143 (31.0)151 (32.8)
 Model 11 (reference)1.09 (0.86, 1.40)1.10 (0.86, 1.40)1.16 (0.91, 1.48)0.044
 Model 21 (reference)1.10 (0.85, 1.42)1.10 (0.85, 1.41)1.17 (0.91, 1.52)0.038
 Model 31 (reference)1.09 (0.85, 1.39)1.06 (0.83, 1.36)1.11 (0.86, 1.43)0.103
  • Tests for trend were conducted using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Values are presented as number (%) or HR (95% CI).

  • Model 1: adjusted for age. Model 2: adjusted for marital status, region, education, current smoker, alcohol consumption, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes based on Model 1. Model 3: adjusted for WC based on Model 2.

  • FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MetS, metabolic syndrome; TG, triglyceride; WC, waist circumstance.