Table 1

Participant and household characteristics

CharacteristicMarriage study
Pregnancy study
Mean age (SD)20.5 (1.7)24 (2.28)
Mean years of education (SD)10 (2.3)7 (2.98)
Non-nuclear homes* (%)7265
Religion (%)
 Median annual income in Indian rupees (US$)30 000 (420)25 000 (350)
Household income source (%)
 Work in own farm00
 Work in others’ farms10098
 Median number of meals cooked per day22
 Median number of household members55
Fuel used for cooking (%)
 Firewood only13.75.7
 Firewood and dung86.292.3
 % that heat bath water daily100100
  • *Nuclear households are comprised of a married couple or a man or a woman living alone or with unmarried children (biological, adopted or fostered) with or without unrelated individuals. Other household arrangements are defined as non-nuclear.