Table 4

Hazard ratios for association between handgrip strength and metabolic syndrome and its components in women

Handgrip strength per body weight (kg/kg)
Quartile 4Quartile 3Quartile 2Quartile 1P for trend
(0.59–1.00, n=376)(0.51–0.58, n=375)(0.43–0.50, n=377)(0.15–0.42, n=377)
Person-years1499.31493.51499.61504.1
New-onset MetS69 (18.4)80 (21.3)100 (26.5)113 (30.0)
 Model 11 (reference)1.19 (0.86, 1.64)1.50 (1.10, 2.04)1.49 (1.10, 2.02)<0.001
 Model 21 (reference)1.20 (0.85, 1.67)1.58 (1.15, 2.18)1.56 (1.14, 2.13)<0.001
 Model 31 (reference)1.14 (0.82, 1.58)1.30 (1.02, 1.57)1.28 (1.03, 1.55)<0.001
MetS components
Abdominal obesity165 (43.9)225 (60.0)245 (65.0)276 (73.2)
 Model 11 (reference)1.40 (1.14, 1.71)1.53 (1.26, 1.87)1.64 (1.35, 1.99)<0.001
 Model 21 (reference)1.42 (1.15, 1.75)1.62 (1.32, 1.99)1.68 (1.37, 2.06)<0.001
 Model 31 (reference)1.24 (1.01, 1.52)1.31 (1.14, 1.70)1.29 (1.05, 1.59)<0.001
Elevated TG73 (19.4)87 (23.2)95 (25.2)87 (23.1)
 Model 11 (reference)1.22 (0.90, 1.67)1.35 (0.99, 1.83)1.16 (0.85, 1.59)0.186
 Model 21 (reference)1.17 (0.85, 1.61)1.38 (1.01, 1.89)1.08 (0.78, 1.50)0.388
 Model 31 (reference)1.13 (0.82, 1.55)1.28 (0.94, 1.74)1.00 (0.72, 1.38)0.660
Decreased HDL120 (31.9)98 (26.1)110 (29.2)129 (34.2)
 Model 11 (reference)0.84 (0.64, 1.10)0.95 (0.73, 1.23)1.04 (0.81, 1.34)0.711
 Model 21 (reference)0.83 (0.63, 1.10)0.97 (0.74, 1.28)1.07 (0.82, 1.39)0.562
 Model 31 (reference)0.80 (0.61, 1.05)0.94 (0.72, 1.22)0.99 (0.76, 1.29)0.941
High blood pressure86 (22.9)119 (31.7)121 (32.1)150 (39.8)
 Model 11 (reference)1.42 (1.07, 1.87)1.46 (1.11, 1.92)1.48 (1.13, 1.93)0.005
 Model 21 (reference)1.41 (1.06, 1.87)1.38 (1.03, 1.84)1.36 (1.03, 1.80)0.046
 Model 31 (reference)1.35 (1.02, 1.79)1.31 (0.99, 1.73)1.22 (0.92, 1.60)0.290
Elevated FPG92 (24.5)94 (25.1)93 (24.7)114 (30.2)
 Model 11 (reference)1.04 (0.73, 1.33)1.05 (0.78, 1.39)1.13 (0.86, 1.49)0.223
 Model 21 (reference)0.99 (0.73, 1.33)1.07 (0.79, 1.44)0.98 (0.73, 1.32)0.658
 Model 31 (reference)0.96 (0.72, 1.29)1.03 (0.77, 1.38)0.99 (0.74, 1.34)0.583
  • Tests for trend were conducted using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Values are presented as number (%) or HR (95% CI).

  • Model 1: adjusted for age. Model 2: adjusted for marital status, region, education, current smoker, alcohol consumption, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes based on Model 1. Model 3: adjusted for WC based on Model 2.

  • FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MetS, metabolic syndrome; TG, triglyceride; WC, waist circumstance.