Table 1

Baseline characteristics presented as mean±SD or % (N) of group

Coproduced PA referral
(n=33)
Usual care ERS
(n=19)
No-treatment control
(n=16)
Between arm
P value
Age (years)57±1253±1648±15p=0.319
Female (% of sample)58 (19)47 (9)56 (9)p=0.774
White British (% of sample)82 (27)95 (18)75 (12)p=0.132
Full-time employment (% of sample)18 (6)26 (5)62 (10)p=0.001
Never smoked (% of sample)73 (24)37 (7)81 (13)p=0.002
Body mass index (kg/m2)31±733±629±6p=0.226
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)131±11138±18123±12p=0.010
Primary referral reason/health concern (control)p=0.132
 Cardiometabolic (% of sample)67 (22)43 (8)62 (10)
 Cancer (% of sample)6 (2)5 (1)6 (1)
 Mental health (% of sample)18 (6)26 (5)19 (3)
 Musculoskeletal (% of sample)9 (3)26 (5)13 (2)
Comorbidity (% of sample)85 (28)100 (19)81 (13)p=0.166
Meeting the PA guidelines (% of sample)*73 (22)71 (10)93 (13)p=0.223
  • P values represent between arm baseline effects. There was no between arm effect for referral reason, thus, no between arm p values are provided for referral reason subgroups.

  • *Chief Medical Officers’ 2019 PA guidelines: 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per week.

  • ERS, exercise referral scheme; PA, physical activity.