Table 1

Information to be collected in clinical studies through CRFs, physical examination and para clinics

CRFInterviewAge, gender, smoking status (amount and duration), alcohol consumption status (amount, type and duration), history of fracture (low impact/due to trauma and site), secondary causes of osteoporosis (due to diseases impacting bone health (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Epilepsy, Dementia, Parkinson‘s disease, Malignancies, systemic lupus erythematosus, Rheumatoid arthritis, chronic kidney disease diabetes, …), history of fall, and/or medication affecting bone health (Parkinson medication, dementia medication, antidepressants, anticonvulsants …)), parental history of hip fracture, glucocorticoid treatment (>3 months and >5 mg prednisolone equivalent). (As for the Iranian part, considering the main objectives of the BEH, cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive function will also be studied. Information on the subjects’ socioeconomic status, illicit drug abuse status, physical activity, reproductive information, and duration and amount of sun exposure per day, history of hospital admissions in the previous year (cause and duration), cognitive function and dietary assessment will be collected).
QuestionnaireActivities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, health-related quality of life (EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D)), Short Physical Performance Battery, and Minimal Mental State Examination questionnaires, as well as 6-item Cognitive Impairment Test (As for the Austrian subjects, the Short Form Health Survey-12 (SF-12) Quality of Life questionnaire will be filled out).
Physical examinationAnthropometric measurement (weight, height, length of the leg and right arm, and neck, hip, waist, right arm, right femur circumference), blood pressure, the muscular mass, and force evaluation, and evaluation of gait and stance (capability to lift 10-pound weight, capability to walk, capability to get up from a chair/bed, capability to climb a 10-step staircase, time to walk 4.75 m in seconds, time to stand up from sitting position in seconds, time to walk 2.44 m in seconds, feet together stance, semi/full tandem stance for 10 s).
  • BEH, Bushehr elderly health; CRFs, clinical risk factors.