Table 2

Prevalence and dosages of opioids

Patients, n (%)Dose (mg), median (IQR)
Morphine equivalent1906 (100)30 (15–80.5)
Morphine169 (8.9)40 (20–160)
Hydromorphone18 (0.9)12 (8–16)
Transdermal fentanyl401 (21.0)0.6 (0.6–1.8)
Sublingual buprenorphine19 (1.0)6 (2–16)
Transdermal buprenorphine18 (0.9)0.84 (0.84–1.68)
Tramadol316 (16.6)100 (75–150)
Hydrocodeine10 (0.5)16.5 (10–30)
Codeine130 (6.8)60 (30–90)
Levomethadone3 (0.2)10 (10–10)
Methadone118 (6.2)80 (35–200)
Oxycodone92 (4.8)20 (15–30)
Oxycodone/naloxone667 (35.0)20 (10–40)
Tapentadol102 (5.4)150 (100–200)
Tilidine1 (0.1)150 (150–150)
Pethidine3 (0.2)50 (50–400)
  • Doses are given for the respective opioid. For oxycodone/naloxone, only the oxycodone dose was used. The conversion factors for the morphine equivalent calculation are as follows: hydromorphone, 4.5; transdermal fentanyl, 2.4; sublingual buprenorphine, 0.1; transdermal buprenorphine, 2.3; tramadol, 0.13; hydrocodeine, 0.13; codeine, 0.13; levomethadone, 16; methadone, 8; oxycodone, 1.5; oxycodone naloxone, 1.5; tepentadole, 0.3, tilidine, 0.2; pethidine, 0.4.25