Table 1

Baseline characteristics

OverallPatients with opioidsPatients without opioidsP value
No of patients26 224, 100%1906, 7.3%24 318, 92.7%
Age (years)63 (IQR 44–78)76 (IQR 59–85)62 (IQR 42–77)<0.0001
Gender
 Female12 998, 49.6%1105, 58%11 893, 48.9%<0.0001
 Male13 226, 50.4%801, 42.0%12 425, 51.1%
Hospitalisation rate13 583, 51.8%1492, 78.3%12 091, 49.7%<0.0001
Length of stay (days)1 (IQR 1–4)5 (IQR 1–8)1 (IQR 1–4)<0.0001
Readmission within 72 hours94, 0.4%15, 0.8%79, 0.3%0.004
Rehospitalisation within 30 days478 to 1.8%119, 6.2%359, 1.5%<0.0001
Mortality510, 1.9% (95% CI 1.8–2.1)121, 6.3% (95% CI 5.3–7.4)389, 1.6% (95% CI 1.4–1.8)<0.0001
Scheduled opioids1906, 7.3% (95% CI 7.0–7.6)
Use of non-opioid analgesics5154, 19.7%954, 50.1%4200, 17.3%<0.0001
 Paracetamol2794, 10.7%569, 29.9%2225, 9.1%<0.0001
 Metamizole1664, 6.3%409, 21.5%1255, 5.2%<0.0001
 NSAIDs2797, 10.7%372, 19.5%2425, 10%<0.0001
Indications for opioids
 Malignancy374, 19.6%
 Musculoskeletal1145, 60.1%
 Other290, 15.2%
 Unknown340, 17.8%
Reasons for presentation to the ED
 Related to opioid therapy154, 0.6% (95% CI 0.5–0.7)154, 8.1% (95% CI 6.9–9.3)0, 0%
 Fall1450, 5.5% (95% CI 5.3–5.8)138, 7.2% (95% CI 6.1–8.4)1312, 5.4% (95% CI 5.1–5.7)0.001
 Constipation704, 2.7% (95% CI 2.5–2.9)98, 5.1% (95% CI 4.2–6.1)606, 2.5% (95% CI 2.3–2.7)<0.0001
 Delirium718, 2.7% (95% CI 2.5–2.9)106, 5.6% (95% CI 4.5 –6.6)612, 2.5% (95% CI 2.3 –2.7)<0.0001
 Vertigo751, 2.9% (95% CI 2.7 –3.1)58, 3.0% (95% CI 2.3–3.8)693, 2.8% (95% CI 2.6–3.1)0.62
eGFR (mL/min)85 (IQR 63–107)72 (IQR 47–93)86 (IQR 65–107)<0.0001
  • ED, emergency department; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate (CKD-EPI formula); NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.