Table 2

Experience of authorship misappropriation by years of research experience

Honorary authorship, n (%)Ghost authorship, n (%)
All respondents (n=3859)Active research for 5 years or less (n=861)Active research for 10 years or less (n=1867)Active researcher for more than 10 years (n=1862)All respondents (n=3859)Active research for 5 years or less (n=861)Active research for 10 years or less (n=1867)Active research for more than 10 years (n=1862)
Never929 (24)250 (30)498 (27)404 (22)2481 (64)604 (71)1288 (69)1152 (62)
Once427 (11)168 (20)283 (15)134 (7)415 (11)99 (12)209 (11)197 (11)
A few times1911 (50)337 (40)853 (46)1032 (55)823 (21)129 (15)341 (18)466 (25)
A lot of times521 (14)90 (11)229 (12)287 (15)67 (2)12 (1)26 (1)41 (2)
  • Percentages do not sum to 100% due to missing data.