Table 3

Associations of sex with emergency department (ED) diagnostics and management in the total paediatric ED population and in subgroups based on type of clinical presentation (boys as reference group)

Pooled OR (95% CI)*Heterogeneity
I2 (%)QP value
Total paediatric ED population
n=116 757
Laboratory testsGirls1.10 (1.05 to 1.15)45.87.270.12
BoysReference
 ImagingGirls1.01 (0.98 to 1.04)01.840.77
BoysReference
 Intravenous medication or fluidsGirls0.96 (0.89 to 1.03)50.58.260.08
BoysReference
 Hospital admissionGirls0.99 (0.95 to 1.04)03.380.50
BoysReference
Heterogeneity
Pooled OR (95% CI)†I2 (%)QP value
Trauma or musculoskeletal
n=20 632
 Laboratory testsGirls1.12 (0.94 to 1.35)39.84.760.19
BoysReference
ImagingGirls1.10 (1.01 to 1.20)44.95.350.15
BoysReference
 Intravenous medication or fluidsGirls0.84 (0.62 to 1.12)74.212.640.01
BoysReference
 Hospital admissionGirls0.90 (0.77 to 1.05)37.74.760.19
BoysReference
Gastrointestinal
n=18 217
 Laboratory testsGirls1.05 (0.90 to 1.21)71.612.740.01
BoysReference
 ImagingGirls0.95 (0.85 to 1.05)19.15.230.26
BoysReference
 Intravenous medication or fluidsGirls0.92 (0.79 to 1.07)53.68.440.08
BoysReference
 Hospital admissionGirls0.96 (0.87 to 1.05)01.660.80
BoysReference
Respiratory
n=13 960
Laboratory testsGirls1.15 (1.04 to 1.26)02.510.64
BoysReference
ImagingGirls1.14 (1.05 to 1.24)02.690.61
BoysReference
Inhalation medicationGirls0.79 (0.73 to 0.86)02.380.67
BoysReference
 Intravenous medication or fluidsGirls1.10 (0.96 to 1.26)02.080.72
BoysReference
 Hospital admissionGirls1.10 (1.00 to 1.22)02.320.72
BoysReference
Fever
n=8782
 Laboratory testsGirls1.12 (0.98 to 1.27)42.86.880.14
BoysReference
 ImagingGirls1.03 (0.91 to 1.16)01.810.77
BoysReference
 Intravenous medication or fluidsGirls1.04 (0.92 to 1.19)03.150.53
BoysReference
 Hospital admissionGirls1.07 (0.96 to 1.20)02.610.63
BoysReference
  • Bold represents Odds Ratios that were considered statistically significant when the 95% confidence interval did not include 1.

  • *Summary OR based on a random effects model where results from individual settings are pooled. Model adjusted for age, triage urgency and clinical presentation.

  • †Summary OR based on a random effects model where results from individual settings are pooled. Model adjusted for age and triage urgency.