Table 1

Summary of inclusion and exclusion criteria of different study groups

All groups
 Global inclusion criteria
  • Age ≥18 years

  • Signed informed consent

 Global exclusion criteria
  • Refusal of participation

  • Pregnancy

Sepsis group (sepsis and septic shock)
 Group-specific inclusion criteria
  • Sepsis according to Sepsis-3 criteria11:

  • A life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a suspected or proven infection

  • Acute change in total SOFA score ≥2 points

  • Onset <24 hours

  • Septic shock: patients with persisting hypotension requiring vasopressors to maintain MAP ≥65 mm Hg and serum lactate level >2 mmol/L despite adequate volume resuscitation

Pancreatic surgery group
 Group-specific inclusion criteria
  • Elective pancreatic resection surgery with open approach

  • Planned ICU admission after surgery

 Group-specific exclusion criteria
  • Atrial fibrillation (due to uncalibrated pulse contour analysis system)

Control group
 Inclusion criteria
  • Healthy volunteers

  • ICU, intensive care unit; MAP, mean arterial pressure; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment.