Table 1

Descriptive statistics for study cohort, overall and stratified by the presence of disease of despair (DoD) diagnosis at any point during follow up, 2007–2018

OverallNo DoDDoDP value
n=12 144 252
(100.0%)
n=11 628 422
(95.8%)
n=5 15 830
(4.2%)
N (%)/M (SD)
Type of DoD diagnosis
 Alcohol-related278 309 (2.3%)278 309 (54.0%)
 Drug-related228 227 (1.9%)228 227 (44.2%)
 Suicide ideation/behaviour84 117 (0.7%)84 117 (16.3%)
 Multiple diagnosis types66 585 (0.5%)66 585 (12.9%)
Gender<0.001
 Women6 124 183 (50.4%)5 909 902 (50.8%)214 281 (41.5%)
 Men6 020 069 (49.6%)5 718 520 (49.2%)301 549 (58.5%)
Age at enrolment midpoint (years)<0.001
 0–172 666 135 (22%)2 625 797 (22.6%)40 338 (7.8%)
 18–251 539 995 (12.7%)1 456 629 (12.5%)83 366 (16.2%)
 26–351 752 493 (14.4%)1 677 395 (14.4%)75 098 (14.6%)
 36–451 638 938 (13.5%)1 560 822 (13.4%)78 116 (15.1%)
 46–551 754 037 (14.4%)1 659 732 (14.3%)94 305 (18.3%)
 56–651 628 179 (13.4%)1 547 308 (13.3%)80 871 (15.7%)
 66–75586 303 (4.8%)552 101 (4.7%)34 202 (6.6%)
 76–85366 120 (3%)345 023 (3%)21 097 (4.1%)
 85+212 052 (1.7%)203 615 (1.8%)8437 (1.6%)
No of years enrolled4.8 (3.4)4.7 (3.4)6.6 (3.4)<0.001
Most recent enrolment<0.001
 2007–20091 467 763 (12.1%)1 440 453 (12.4%)27 310 (5.3%)
 2010–20121 796 257 (14.8%)1 739 269 (15%)56 988 (11.0%)
 2013–20152 528 619 (20.8%)2 421 676 (20.8%)106 943 (20.7%)
 2016–20186 351 613 (52.3%)6 027 024 (51.8%)324 589 (62.9%)
Medical insurance type<0.001
 Employer sponsored9 516 477 (78.4%)9 105 741 (78.3%)410 736 (79.6%)
 ACA354 355 (2.9%)340 900 (2.9%)13 455 (2.6%)
 Medicare752 594 (6.2%)699 619 (6%)52 975 (10.3%)
 Other1 520 825 (12.5%)1 482 161 (12.7%)38 664 (7.5%)
  • If there were multiple values on file for state or type of insurance, the value covering longest period was selected. Affordable Care Act (ACA) plans were available 2014–2018.