Table 4

Regression models showing associations between non-modifiable explanatory variables and depression scores

Regression coefficient
95% CI lower95% CI upperβP value
PHQ-9 total score†
 Age (per decade)−0.30−0.33−0.27−0.36<0.0001****
 Live alone0.330.210.450.09<0.0001****
 BAME background0.03−
 Key worker0.08−
Risk group‡
 Most at risk0.560.350.770.09<0.0001****
 Increased risk0.270.160.380.08<0.0001****
Adjusted R2=0.14, n=3090
OR95% CI lower95% CI upperβP value
PHQ-9 ‘cases’§
 Age (per decade)0.650.610.69−1.38<0.0001****
 Live alone1.531.211.930.31<0.001***
 BAME background1.140.881.480.080.31
 Key worker1.160.991.360.160.06
Risk group‡
 Most at risk1.981.332.940.28<0.001***
 Increased risk1.631.312.020.39<0.0001****
Pseudo R2=0.07, n=3090
  • ****p<0.001, ****p<0.0001.

  • †A square-root transformation was applied to the dependent variable.

  • ‡Comparison reference group ‘I am in neither risk category’.

  • §A ‘case’ is defined as a PHQ-9 Score greater than or equal to 10, at which level someone would qualify for high intensity psychological support in the National Health Service.

  • BAME, Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic; PHQ-9, 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire.