Table 10

Regression model showing associations between modifiable explanatory variables and stress scores

B95% CI lower95% CI upperβP value
4-item Perceived Stress Scale total score
 Age (per decade)−0.25−0.31−0.18−0.12<0.0001****
 Live alone−0.41−0.67−0.14−0.040.002**
 Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic background0.26−0.040.550.020.09
 Key worker−0.39−0.58−0.21−0.06<0.0001****
Risk group‡
 Most at risk0.03−0.410.470.000.90
 Increased risk0.02−
Perceived loneliness (per unit)<0.0001****
Positive mood (per unit)−0.38−0.40−0.36−0.60<0.0001****
COVID-19 worry†
 No worry−0.05−0.300.19−0.010.68
 Much of time0.370.100.630.040.007**
 Most of time1.020.541.500.06<0.0001****
Perceived risk of COVID-19 (per unit)**
Adjusted R2=0.57, n=2494
  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001, ****p<0.0001.

  • †Comparison reference group ‘I occasionally worry about getting COVID-19’.

  • ‡Comparison reference group ‘I am in neither risk category’.