Table 9

Regression models showing associations between modifiable explanatory variables and anxiety

B95% CI lower95% CI upperβP value
GAD-7 total score†
 Age (per decade)−0.16−0.18−0.14−0.20<0.0001****
 Live alone−0.25−0.36−0.15−0.07<0.0001****
 BAME background−0.08−0.190.04−0.020.19
 Key worker−0.03−0.110.04−0.010.34
Risk group‡
 Most at risk0.02−
 Increased risk0.07−
 Perceived loneliness (per unit)<0.0001****
 Positive mood (per unit)−0.12−0.13−0.11−0.48<0.0001****
COVID-19 worry§
 No worry−0.18−0.28−0.09−0.05<0.001***
 Much of time0.570.470.680.15<0.0001****
 Most of time0.870.681.060.13<0.0001****
 Perceived risk of COVID-19 (per unit)<0.0001****
Adjusted R2=0.54, n=2494
OR95% CI lower95% CI upperβP value
GAD-7 ‘cases’¶
 Age (per decade)0.690.630.76−1.32<0.0001****
 Live alone0.670.460.99−0.310.04*
 BAME background0.960.651.44−0.030.86
 Key worker0.890.701.15−0.130.38
Risk group‡
 Most at risk0.890.511.55−0.050.67
 Increased risk0.920.661.29−0.070.64
Perceived loneliness (per unit)<0.0001****
Positive mood (per unit)0.770.750.80−3.08<0.0001****
COVID-19 worry§
 No worry0.750.521.09−0.240.13
 Much of time3.902.885.291.07<0.0001****
 Most of time11.635.9122.901.06<0.0001****
Perceived risk of COVID-19 (per unit)*
Pseudo R2=0.36, n=2494
  • *p<0.05, ***p<0.001, ****p<0.0001.

  • †A square-root transformation was applied to the dependent variable.

  • ‡Comparison reference group ‘I am in neither risk category’.

  • §Comparison reference group ‘I occasionally worry about getting COVID-19’.

  • ¶A ‘case’ is defined as a GAD-7 Score greater than or equal to 10, at which level someone would qualify for high intensity psychological support in the National Health Service.

  • BAME, Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic; GAD-7, 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale.