Table 8

Regression models showing associations between modifiable explanatory variables and depression scores

B95% CI lower95% CI upperβP value
PHQ-9 total score†
 Age (per decade)−0.19−0.21−0.17−0.24<0.0001****
 Live alone0.01−
 BAME background−0.02−0.140.09−0.010.67
 Key worker0.02−
Risk group‡
 Most at risk0.260.090.430.040.002**
 Increased risk0.<0.0001****
Perceived loneliness (per unit)<0.0001****
Positive mood (per unit)−0.12−0.12−0.11−0.48<0.0001****
COVID-19 worry§
 No worry0.00−
 Much of time0.260.160.360.07<0.0001****
 Most of time0.300.120.480.050.001**
Perceived risk of COVID-19 (per unit)0.01−
Adjusted R2=0.57, n=2494
OR95% CI lower95% CI upperβP value
PHQ-9 ‘cases’¶
 Age (per decade)0.660.610.72−1.38<0.0001****
 Live alone0.880.611.25−0.100.47
 BAME background0.960.651.40−0.030.82
 Key worker1.090.861.380.090.49
Risk group‡
 Most at risk1.280.742.210.110.37
 Increased risk1.611.192.190.400.002**
Perceived loneliness (per unit)<0.0001****
Positive mood (per unit)0.760.740.79−3.01<0.0001****
COVID-19 worry§
 No worry1.020.731.440.020.90
 Much of time1.671.232.280.380.001**
 Most of time2.021.133.620.290.02*
Perceived risk of COVID-19 (per unit)1.040.981.100.180.20
Pseudo R2=0.36, n=2494
  • *p<0.05,**p<0.01, ****p<0.0001.

  • †A square-root transformation was applied to the dependent variable.

  • ‡Comparison reference group ‘I am in neither risk category’.

  • §Comparison reference group ‘I occasionally worry about getting COVID-19’.

  • ¶A ‘case’ is defined as a PHQ-9 Score greater than or equal to 10, at which level someone would qualify for high intensity psychological support in the National Health Service.

  • BAME, Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic; PHQ-9, 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire.