Table 2

Associations between the prevalence of cerebral stroke and systemic and ocular parameters after adjusting for age and gender in the Beijing Eye Study 2011

ParameterP valueOR95% CI
Systemic parameters
 Rural/urban region of habitation0.111.290.95 to 1.75
 Body mass index (kg/m2) to 1.08
 Level of education (1–5)0.641.040.92 to 1.18
 Self-reported income0.730.990.93 to 1.05
 Cognitive score0.771.000.96 to 1.03
 Alcohol consumption frequency0.0010.850.77 to 0.94
 Smoking: never/former/current0.190.870.71 to 1.07
 Smoking: never/ever0.981.000.72 to 1.38
 Smoking package years0.381.001.00 to 1.01
Physical activity
 ‘How many days do you walk?’0.510.980.92 to 1.04
 ‘How many days do you do vigorously intensive sport or activities?’0.050.810.66 to 1.00
 ‘How many days do you do moderately intensive sport or activities?’0.010.940.89 to 0.99
 ‘How many hours do you sit per day?’ to 1.12
Quality of life
 Summed score<0.0011.441.31 to 1.59
 Mobility: I have no/some problems in walking about/I am confined to bed<0.0012.792.01 to 3.86
 Self-care: I have no/some problems in washing or dressing myself/I am unable to wash or dress myself<0.0013.332.33 to 4.75
 Usual activities (eg, work, study, housework, family or leisure activities): I am able to wash or dress myself/I have some problems with performing my usual activities/I am unable to perform my usual activities<0.0013.272.36 to 4.53
 Pain/discomfort0.0011.621.22 to 2.14
 Anxiety/depression: I am not/moderately/extremely anxious or depressed<0.0012.071.45 to 2.95
 Depression score<0.0011.061.04 to 1.08
Blood concentration of
 Glucose (mmol/L) to 1.21
 Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)0.0081.181.04 to 1.33
 High-density lipoproteins (mmol/L)0.110.700.45 to 1.09
 Low-density lipoproteins (mmol/L)0.280.900.74 to 1.09
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)0.951.010.86 to 1.17
 Cholesterol (mmol/L)0.180.880.74 to 1.06
 C-reactive protein0.471.010.98 to 1.04
 Diabetes mellitus, prevalence<0.0011.861.32 to 2.61
 Diabetes mellitus, duration (years) to 1.04
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg),1.02
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)0.821.000.99 to 1.01
 Mean blood pressure (mm Hg)0.401.000.99 to 1.01
 Arterial hypertension<0.0012.421.76 to 3.34
 Estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure (mm Hg) to 1.09
 Creatinine (mmol/L)0.671.000.99 to 1.02
 Estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (mL/min/1.73 m²) (MDRD formula)0.791.000.99 to 1.01
 Estimated glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m²) (CKD-EPI formula)0.791.000.98 to 1.01
Ocular parameters
 Refractive error (dioptres)0.470.980.92 to 1.04
 Axial length (mm)0.700.980.86 to 1.11
 Anterior corneal curvature radius (mm)0.160.660.37 to 1.18
 Central corneal thickness (µm)0.091.0040.999 to 1.008
 Anterior chamber depth (mm)0.921.010.79 to 1.29
 Lens thickness (mm)0.141.410.89 to 2.22
 Intraocular pressure (mm Hg)0.661.010.96 to 1.06
 Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (µm)0.621.000.99 to 1.01
 Localised defects of the retinal nerve fibre layer, prevalence0.421.180.79 to 1.77
 Localised defects of the retinal nerve fibre layer, 10-year incidence0.061.830.98 to 3.42
 Subfoveal choroidal thickness (µm)0.831.001.00 to 1.00
 Fundus tessellation0.661.020.92 to 1.13
 Macular retinal thickness (µm)0.040.9940.989 to 1.000
 Optic disc size (mm2)0.691.090.71 to 1.70
 Neuroretinal rim area (mm2)0.521.150.75 to 1.77
 Dry eye, yes or no0.801.040.79 to 1.36
 Dry eye, number of days0.081.040.995 to 1.10
 Keratoconus (anterior corneal curvature refractive power ≥48 dioptres) to 7.18
 Keratoconus (anterior corneal curvature refractive power ≥49 dioptres) to 48.9
 Pseudoexfoliation syndrome0.490.820.47 to 1.43
 Nuclear cataract0.060.720.51 to 1.02
 Cortical cataract0.870.970.66 to 1.43
 Subcapsular posterior cataract0.341.290.77 to 2.16
 Glaucoma, prevalence, total0.610.870.52 to 1.47
 Open-angle glaucoma0.260.630.28 to 1.40
 Primary angle closure glaucoma0.360.570.17 to 1.89
 Age-related macular degeneration, prevalence, total0.600.920.68 to 1.25
 Age-related macular degeneration, early stage0.290.750.44 to 1.28
 Age-related macular degeneration, intermediate stage0.750.950.67 to 1.34
 Age-related macular degeneration, late stage0.112.260.84 to 6.06
 Diabetic retinopathy, prevalence<0.0011.631.27 to 2.08
 Diabetic retinopathy, score<0.0014.752.67 to 8.46
 Retinal vein occlusion, total0.181.550.82 to 2.93
 Branch retinal vein occlusion0.651.250.48 to 3.29
 Myopic retinopathy0.771.200.36 to 4.03
  • MDRD: Modification of Diet in Renal Disease; CKD-EPI: Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration