Table 1

Eligibility criteria for inclusion or exclusion based on key study criteria

Study design
InclusionExclusion
Randomised studies, non-randomised studies, cluster studies, before and after studies, cohort studies, observational studies, case-control studies and narrative research studies.Case studies.
Opinion pieces (commentaries, letters, editorials).
Participants
Studies in medical students. There were no exclusions based on age or course type.
Interventions
Studies of any type of education were considered for inclusion. This included but was not limited to Online (lectures, videos, quiz), workshops, lectures, small group teaching, bedside teaching, reflection, reflective essays.
Comparators
Any comparators were considered for inclusion. Likely to be no, different or less education.
Outcomes
Any outcome measure assessing the effectiveness of palliative care learning and teaching. These might relate to competence/skills, and/or knowledge, and include but not limited to, exam scores.Studies with only student’s self-opinion/self-perspective, reflective essays and qualitative outcomes were excluded as the primary interest was objective measures of effects of palliative care teaching interventions.
Timing
No restrictions on length of follow-up after the teaching was delivered to medical students.
Setting
No restrictions by country or education setting (providing it was to medical students).
Date
No restrictions by date.
Language
No language restrictions for searching studies. Non-English language papers were included in the review and every attempt was made to translate all included foreign language papers. However, if translation was not possible, this was recorded.
Publication status
Published as well as unpublished work was searched for and considered for inclusion. If only an abstract was available, the authors were contacted to attain further information from their study.