Table 2

Summary of mixed methods appraisal tool (MMAT) core quality criteria for mixed methods and non-randomised quantitative research, adapted from Hong et al15

Study designCore quality criteria
Mixed methods research
  1. Is there an adequate rationale for using a mixed methods design to address the research question?

  2. Are the different components of the study effectively integrated to answer the research question?

  3. Are the outputs of the integration of qualitative and quantitative components adequately interpreted?

  4. Are divergences and inconsistencies between quantitative and qualitative results adequately addressed?

  5. Do the different components of the study adhere to the quality criteria of each tradition of the methods involved?

Non-randomised quantitative research
  1. Are the participants representative of the target population?

  2. Are measurements appropriate regarding both the outcome and intervention (or exposure)?

  3. Are there complete outcome data?

  4. Are the confounders accounted for in the design and analysis?

  5. During the study period, is the intervention administered (or exposure occurred) as intended?

  • NB: when criteria 5 of mixed methods research references adhering to the quality criteria of each method involved, it references the quality criteria listed in other sections of the MMAT of the individual methods used, for example, the quality criteria for non-randomised quantitative research. This research followed this guidance.