Table 1

Search strategy

Search terms
DatabaseMeSH terms
 Ovid MedlineQuasi-experimental studies—causality/; adoption/; child, adopted/; exp twins/; twin study/; propensity score/; siblings/; interrupted time series analysis/; mendelian randomization analysis/; ecological momentary assessment/; fertilization in vitro/; controlled before-after studies/; fuzzy logic/.
Disruptive behaviours—conduct disorder/; “attention deficit and disruptive behavior disorders”/; antisocial personality disorder/.
 Ovid EmbaseQuasi-experimental studies—causality/; causal attribution/; causal modelling/; quasi experimental study/; adopted child/; adoption/; twins/; twin study/; propensity score/; sibling/; sibling relation/; instrumental variable analysis/; time series analysis/; mendelian randomization analysis/; ecological momentary assessment/; in vitro fertilization/; exogenous variable/; fuzzy logic/; fuzzy system/; maximum likelihood method/.
Disruptive behaviours—conduct disorder/; oppositional defiant disorder/; disruptive behavior/; antisocial personality disorder/; psychopathy/.
 Ovid PsycINFOQuasi-experimental studies—exp causality/; exp causal analysis/; exp quasi experimental methods/; adopted children/; “adoption (child)”/; adoptive parents/; twins/; exp siblings/; exp time series/; exp ecological momentary assessment/; reproductive technology/; counterfactual thinking/; fuzzy logic/; fuzzy set theory/; exp maximum likelihood/.
Disruptive behaviours—exp conduct disorder/; exp oppositional defiant disorder/; exp disruptive behavior disorders/; exp externalizing symptoms/; antisocial personality disorder/; psychopathy/.
 Web of ScienceQuasi-experimental studies—Not applicable.
Disruptive behaviours—Not applicable.
Free text search terms
Concept 1—
 Quasi-experimental studies
  1. Quasi-experimental studies MeSH Terms

  2. (causal*)

  3. ((quasiexperiment*) or (quasi experiment*))

  4. (adopt*)

  5. (fixed effect*)

  6. (twin*)

  7. (propensity score*)

  8. (sibling*)

  9. (regression discontinuity)

  10. (instrumental variable*)

  11. (interrupted time series)

  12. (mendelian randomi?ation)

  13. (matching stud*)

  14. (experience sampl*)

  15. (ecological momentary assessment*)

  16. ((difference* in difference*) or (difference* stud*))

  17. (in vitro fertili?ation)

  18. ((polygenic score*) or (polygenic risk score*))

  19. (exogenous varia*)

  20. (natural experiment*)

  21. (matched control*)

  22. (counterfactual*)

  23. (potential outcome*)

  24. ((balancing adj3 covariate) or (imbalance adj3 covariate) or (balanced adj3 covariate) or (imbalanced adj3 covariate))

  25. (controlled before and after) or (controlled before after))

  26. (inverse probability weight*)

  27. ((doubly robust regression*) or (doubly robust estimate*))

  28. ((selection model*) or (selectivity model*))

  29. ((heckit model*) or (heckman sample selection*))

  30. (selection correction*)

  31. (two stage residual inclusion*)

  32. ((sharp design*) or (fuzzy design*))

  33. (forcing variable*)

  34. (full information maximum likelihood)

  35. (natural control*)

  36. 1 OR 2 OR 3 OR 4 OR 5 OR 6 OR 7 OR 8 OR 9 OR 10 OR 11 OR 12 OR 13 OR 14 OR 15 OR 16 OR 17 OR 18 OR 19 OR 20 OR 21 OR 22 OR 23 OR 24 OR 25 OR 26 OR 27 OR 28 OR 29 OR 30 OR 31 OR 32 OR 33 OR 34 OR 35

Concept 2—Disruptive behaviours
  1. Disruptive behaviours MeSH Terms

  2. (conduct problem*)

  3. (conduct disorder*)

  4. (oppositional defian*)

  5. (disruptive behaviour*) or (disruptive behaviour*)

  6. (externali?ing)

  7. (antisocial personalit*) or (anti social personalit*)

  8. (dissocial personalit*)

  9. ((psychopathic) or (psychopathy) or (psychopath) or (psychopaths))

  10. 37 OR 38 OR 39 OR 40 OR 41 OR 42 OR 43 OR 44 OR 45

  1. 36 AND 46

  2. Limit to English Language

  3. Human not animal

  4. Not review or meta-analysis or case-report

  5. Limit to 1980—Current