Table 2

Prevalence of reduced kidney function by demographics, socioeconomic position, health behaviours and comorbidities in Chilean adults 18 years or over

ENS 2009–2010ENS 2016–2017
CKD*CKD*
% (95% CI)% (95% CI)
Age
18–440.1 (0.0 to 0.3)0.3 (0.1 to 0.8)
45–641.9 (1.0 to 3.4)1.3 (0.7 to 2.3)
65+15.0 (11.5 to 19.2)19.1 (15.3 to 23.6)
Gender
Male2.0 (1.3 to 3.1)3.3 (2.3 to 4.6)
Female2.9 (2.1 to 3.9)3.2 (2.4 to 4.3)
Education
<8 years5.4 (4.1 to 7.3)10.8 (8.1 to 14.3)
8–12 years1.9 (1.3 to 2.9)1.9 (1.3 to 2.6)
>12 years1.5 (0.6 to 3.4)1.3 (0.6 to 2.7)
Residence
Urban2.4 (1.8 to 3.2)3.0 (2.4 to 3.9)
Rural3.0 (1.7 to 5.2)4.8 (3.2 to 7.1)
Smoking
Current1.1 (0.6 to 2.2)0.6 (0.2 to 1.4)
Ex-smoker3.2 (2.1 to 5.0)4.9 (3.5 to 6.8)
Never3.4 (2.3 to 5.0)4.4 (3.2 to 5.9)
BMI†
Underweight9.1 (2.3 to 29.9)11.7 (3.3 to 34.1)
Normal2.0 (1.2 to 3.2)2.7 (1.7 to 4.1)
Overweight2.4 (1.5 to 3.9)2.9 (1.9 to 4.4)
Obese2.6 (1.6 to 4.1)3.5 (2.5 to 4.8)
Diabetes‡
No1.8 (1.4 to 2.5)2.5 (1.9 to 3.4)
Yes7.6 (4.4 to 12.8)8.1 (5.7 to 11.4)
Hypertension§
No1.0 (0.6 to 1.7)0.6 (0.4 to 1.0)
Yes6.3 (4.7 to 8.4)9.6 (7.6 to 12.1)
  • *eGFR (measured in mL/min/1.73 m2) determined by CKD-EPI equation. Presence of reduced kidney function or CKD (stages G3a–G5) considered when eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2.

  • †Underweight: BMI <18.5 kg/m2; normal weight: BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2; overweight: BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2; obese: BMI ≥30 kg/m2.

  • ‡Diabetes: fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dL (≥7.0 mmol/L) and/or self-report of medical diagnosis.

  • §Hypertension: SBP ≥140 mm Hg and/or DBP ≥90 mm Hg, and/or self-report of medical diagnosis.

  • BMI, body mass index; CKD-EPI, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; ENS, Encuesta Nacional de Salud; SBP, systolic blood pressure.