Table 3

Prevalence of increased albuminuria by demographics, socioeconomic position, health behaviours and comorbidities

ENS 2009–2010ENS 2016–2017
Increased albuminuria*Increased albuminuria*
% (95% CI)% (95% CI)
Age
40–6417.0 (13.1 to 21.7)11.2 (8.9 to 14.0)
65+21.9 (17.9 to 26.5)26.4 (22.2 to 31.1)
Gender
Male20.0 (16.0 to 24.7)12.3 (9.9 to 15.2)
Female16.8 (13.7 to 20.5)18.4 (15.4 to 21.9)
Education
<8 years24.1 (19.8 to 29.1)21.3 (17.9 to 25.3)
8–12 years14.7 (11.6 to 18.4)14.1 (11.0 to 17.8)
>12 years17.2 (10.8 to 26.2)10.1 (6.3 to 15.7)
Residence
Urban17.7 (15.0 to 20.8)15.3 (13.1 to 17.8)
Rural22.0 (15.5 to 30.2)17.0 (13.0 to 22.0)
Smoking
Current17.5 (13.0 to 23.0)14.2 (10.0 to 19.8)
Ex-smoker21.4 (16.1 to 28.0)15.5 (12.0 to 19.8)
Never17.2 (13.7 to 21.4)16.4 (13.3 to 20.0)
BMI†
Underweight17.7 (4.5 to 49.3)15.9 (3.5 to 49.3)
Normal14.6 (9.7 to 21.5)14.8 (10.3 to 20.7)
Overweight15.6 (12.2 to 19.6)11.1 (8.6 to 14.1)
Obese22.7 (18.0 to 28.1)19.4 (15.8 to 23.7)
Diabetes‡
No15.9 (13.2 to 19.1)11.3 (9.2 to 13.8)
Yes27.7 (21.2 to 35.2)29.2 (23.6 to 35.6)
Hypertension§
No9.4 (6.8 to 12.8)6.2 (4.3 to 8.9)
Yes23.0 (19.5 to 26.9)22.5 (19.4 to 25.9)
  • *Albuminuria results limited to participants aged 40+ with diabetes and/or hypertension (diagnosed or survey-detected). Albuminuria determined by the urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR, measured in mg/g). Increased albuminuria (A2–A3) considered when ACR ≥30 mg/g.

  • †Underweight: BMI <18.5 kg/m2; normal weight: BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2; overweight: BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2; obese: BMI ≥30 kg/m2.

  • ‡Diabetes: fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dL (≥7.0 mmol/L) and/or self-report of medical diagnosis.

  • §Hypertension: SBP ≥140 mm Hg and/or DBP ≥90 mm Hg, and/or self-report of medical diagnosis.

  • BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; ENS, Encuesta Nacional de Salud; SBP, systolic blood pressure.