Table 1

Inclusion criteria

PECOS componentDescription
PopulationAdults (≥18 years old)
Diabetes (any type, including mixed or unspecified)
ExposureFrailty as assessed by any frailty measure
ComparatorPeople with diabetes not classified as frail
  • Mortality

  • Major adverse cardiovascular events

  • Hospital admission

  • Admission to long-term care facility

  • Falls

  • Number of clinic attendances

  • Quality of life

  • Disability/functional status

Diabetes specific:
  • HbA1c (cross-sectional association, or longitudinal)

  • Glycaemic variability

  • Hypoglycaemic episodes

  • Diabetic retinopathy (cross-sectional association, or longitudinal)

  • Diabetic nephropathy (cross-sectional association, or longitudinal)

    • Include development of end-stage renal disease

  • Diabetic foot complications (cross-sectional association or longitudinal)

  • Treatment burden (eg, Diabetic Treatment Burden Questionnaire)

SettingsCommunity (including care home/nursing home)
Outpatient clinic
Study designCross-sectional or longitudinal
Other exclusionsConference abstracts, letters, review articles, intervention studies and Grey literature
  • PECOS, Population, Exposure, Comparator, Outcome, Setting and Study design.