Table 1

Characteristics of patients with GDM according to postpartum glucose test results

VariablesWomen with OGTT post partum
(n=112)
GI
(n=24)
NGT
(n=88)
P value
Maternal age (years)31 (27–36)33.5 (30–36.25)30 (26–34)0.007
 <3581 (72.3)13 (54.2)68 (77.3)0.025
 ≥3531 (27.7)11 (45.8)20 (22.7)
Gravidity2 (1–3)3 (2–4)2 (1–3)<0.001
 Primigravida37 (33)4 (16.7)33 (37.5)0.054
 Multigravida75 (67)20 (83.3)55 (62.5)
Previous history of GDM (n=74)
 Yes25 (33.8)8 (40)17 (31.5)0.49
 No49 (66.2)12 (60)37 (68.5)
Family history of DM
 Yes23 (20.5)7 (29.2)16 (18.2)0.238
 No89 (79.5)17 (70.8)72 (81.8)
MUAC (cm)26 (24–29)29 (25.75–30)25 (24–28)0.003
 <2871 (63.4)7 (29.2)64 (72.7)<0.001
 ≥2841 (36.6)17 (70.8)24 (27.3)
Blood pressure (mm Hg)
 Systolic blood pressure110 (104–120)110 (100–120)110 (104.75–120)<0.001
 Diastolic blood pressure70 (69.75–80)70 (70–80)70 (69–80)<0.001
Hemoglobin (g/dl) (n=109)12.6 (11–13.6)13 (12–14)12.3 (11–13,6)<0.001
 Normal (haemoglobin ≥11 g/dL)89 (81.7)22 (91.7)67 (78.8)0.2328*
 Anaemia (haemoglobin <11 g/dL)20 (18.3)2 (8.3)18 (21.2)
Blood glucose level at diagnosis (mg/dL)
 FPG at GDM diagnosis OGTT105 (94–116)117 (107.75–120.25)101.5 (92–114)0.0004
 1-hour PG at GDM diagnosis OGTT170 (150.8–178)170.5 (161.5–179)170 (150–178)0.2635
 2-hour PG at GDM diagnosis OGTT144.5 (129–158)143.5 (132–153.5)145.5 (128.75–158)0.7577
Gestational age at diagnosis (weeks)26 (25–27)26 (24–27)26 (25–27)< 0.001
 24–2899 (88.4)20 (83.3)79 (89.8)0.4771*
 ≥3213 (11.6)4 (16.7)9 (10.2)
Level of physical activity
 High18 (16.1)5 (20.8)13 (14.8)0.590
 Moderate28 (25)7 (29.2)21 (23.9)
 Low66 (58.9)12 (50)54 (61.4)
Dietary diversity status
 Adequate24 (21.4)2 (8.3)22 (25)0.05973
 Inadequate88 (78.6)22 (91.7)66 (75)
Antenatal depression
 Yes28 (25)10 (41.7)18 (20.5)0.033
 No84 (75)14 (58.3)70 (79.5)
Insulin-treated GDM
 Yes7 (6.2)2 (8.3)5 (5.7)0.641
 No105 (93.8)22 (91.7)83 (94.3)
  • Data are presented by n (%) or median (IQR).

  • *P value of Fisher exact test

  • DM, diabetes mellitus; FP, Plasma glucose; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; GI, glucose intolerance; MUAC, mid-upper arm circumference; NGT, normal glucose tolerance; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.