Table 1

Description of outcome and exposure factors and their specific measurements

Outcome variables
OutcomesMeasurements
1.Primary outcome
  • In-hospital survival/mortality

2.Secondary outcomes
  • Disease progression after admission requiring critical care

  • In survivors, time to discharge from the ICU and hospital

  • In those who have died and time to death

  • Incidence of AKI, need for dialysis and recovery of kidney function

Exposure variables
Exposure factorsMeasurements
1.Clinical
  • Will include ‘fever, disease severity, presence of ARDS, presence of HIV infection and presence of other comorbidities (diabetes, obesity, heart failure, hypertension, existing cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, post-tuberculous structural lung disease)’

2.Laboratory
  • Will include ‘leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, neutrophil as lymphocyte ratio, elevated serum creatinine, elevated C-reactive protein’, D-dimer, procalciltonin, CD4 and HIV viral load

3.Social demographic
  • Will include ‘age, sex, area of residence and occupation’

4.Epidemiological
  • Cases could imported, local transmission, isolated or disease clustering, and duration of contact with a symptomatic individual before symptoms

5.Medication
  • COVID-19-supportive therapy, COVID-19-directed therapy, antiretrovial treatment (ART) and, other antivirals, any other concurrent medication for any other indication

  • AKI, acute kidney injury; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; ART, antiretroviral treatment; ICU, intensive care unit; REDCap, Research Electronic Data Capture.