Table 1

Characteristics of the study population and comparisons between participants going outdoors frequently or not

Characteristics (mean) (%)Total population (N=3419) (100 %)Going outdoors frequently?Unadjusted OR (95% CI)P value
Yes (N=2528; 73.9%)No (N=891; 26.1%)
SociodemographicFemale (%)59.558.462.70.83 (0.71 to 0.97)0.022
Age groups by cohort wave (%)
 78-82 years (wave 1)34.624.126.8(ref)<0.001
 73-77 years (wave 2)30.032.832.10.90 (0.75 to 1.08)
 68-72 years (wave 3)35.543.141.10.57 (0.48 to 0.69)
Higher education (%)44.047.135.11.65 (1.41 to 1.93)<0.001
HealthComorbidities (%)
 None23.826.017.6(ref)<0.001
 One30.631.827.20.79 (0.63 to 0.99)
 Two or more45.642.255.20.51 (0.42 to 0.63)
Vertigo (%)10.38.216.20.46 (0.37 to 0.58)<0.001
Dyspnoea (%)17.213.029.10.36 (0.30 to 0.44)<0.001
Pain (%)61.958.272.20.54 (0.45 to 0.63)<0.001
Urinary incontinence (%)14.412.320.30.55 (0.45 to 0.68)<0.001
Falls (%)19.017.224.40.64 (0.53 to 0.77)<0.001
PsychologicalDepressive feelings (%)25.620.540.20.38 (0.32 to 0.45)<0.001
Insecurity in the street (%)37.033.746.70.58 (0.49 to 0.68)<0.001
Fear of falling (%)50.645.165.30.44 (0.38 to 0.52)<0.001
Optimism, quality of life in a year (%)
 The same or better87.690.379.72.40 (1.91 to 2.94)<0.001
Cognitive complaints (%)29.325.938.70.55 (0.47 to 0.65)<0.001
Social networkLiving alone (%)42.942.244.90.89 (0.77 to 1.04)0.162
Dense social network (%)25.328.316.52.00 (1.61 to 2.48)<0.001
High-quality social network (%)56.859.948.01.62 (1.39 to 1.89)<0.001
 New emotional relationship (%)7.27.85.51.45 (1.05 to 2.01)0.025
 Death of the spouse or partner (%)1.561.471.810.81 (0.45 to 1.46)0.485
  • Refer to ‘Methods’ section for detailed definition of the characteristics.

  • ORs and p values from unadjusted logistic regression analysis.