Table 2

Maternal and infant characteristics, including mode of delivery and adverse outcomes in the second pregnancy of 42 962 who had a caesarean and 251 636 who had a vaginal delivery in their first pregnancy (CD vs VD) during 1996–2015

Previous CDPrevious VDP value
Mothers age in years, mean (SD)31.1 (4.6)29.9 (4.4)<0.001
Diabetes, N (%)2095 (4.9)4834 (1.9)<0.001
Start of delivery, N (%)
 Spontaneous22 707 (53.0)211 165 (84.0)
 Induced7179 (17.0)30 895 (12.0)<0.001
 CD13 074 (30.0)9570 (4.0)
Mode of delivery*, N (%)
 Vaginal delivery20 826 (48.0)235 372 (94.0)<0.001
 CD22 136 (52.0)16 264 (6.0)
Gestational age at birth in weeks mean (SD)39.1 (2.0)39.5 (1.7)<0.001
Birth weight in grams mean (SD)3577 (613)3630 (541)<0.001
Congenital anomalies, N (%)2007 (4.7)9537 (3.8)<0.001
Sex†, N (%)
 Female20 958 (49.0)122 307 (49.0)0.50
Apgar score after 5 min‡, N (%)
 0–3292 (1.0)1048 (0.4)
 4–61196 (3.0)2955 (1.2)<0.001
 7–1041 407 (96.0)247 028 (98.4)
Transferred NICU, N (%)
 Yes5424 (13.0)16 502 (7.0)<0.001
  • *2 (0.005%) deliveries with missing information about start of delivery in the previous CD group and 6 (0.002%) in the previous VD group.

  • †12 (0.005%) deliveries with missing information about sex in the previous VD group.

  • ‡67 (0.16%) deliveries with missing information about Apgar score in the previous CD group and 605 (0.24%) in the previous VD group.

  • CD, caesarean delivery; NICU, neonatal intensive care unit; VD, vaginal delivery.