Table 3

Univariable and multivariable association of LVH using echocardiogram with clinical parameters in patients with asymptomatic hypertension

LVH on echocardiogram
UnivariableMultivariable
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Demographics
 Higher age1.07 (1.04 to 1.10)<0.0011.06 (1.03 to 1.10)0.001
 Male0.93 (0.63 to 1.37)0.707
 Low education1.08 (0.61 to 1.93)0.792
 Having a partner0.92 (0.58 to 1.45)0.711
Lifestyle
 Current smoker0.66 (0.37 to 1.21)0.184
 Regular alcohol use*1.10 (0.73 to 1.66)0.653
 Recommended physical exercise†0.89 (0.53 to 1.50)0.660
Clinical characteristics and risk factors
 Previous MI2.94 (1.10 to 7.89)0.0322.86 (1.04 to 7.83)0.041
 Peripheral artery disease0.48 (0.17 to 1.38)0.175
 Previous TIA/stroke1.69 (0.85 to 3.37)0.134
 Diabetes1.26 (0.65 to 2.43)0.500
 Higher BMI‡1.05 (1.00 to 1.09)0.0461.05 (1.01 to 1.10)0.032
 LnBNP§1.35 (1.06 to 1.71)0.014
 Higher total cholesterol¶1.12 (0.91 to 1.37)0.278
 Higher LDL¶1.11 (0.89 to 1.38)0.360
 Higher SBP1.01 (1.00 to 1.02)0.008
 SBP >1401.27 (0.84 to 1.92)0.255
 SBP >1501.39 (0.94 to 2.04)0.099
 Higher DBP0.99 (0.97 to 1.01)0.188
 DBP >900.92 (0.57 to 1.48)0.715
 Blood pressure on target**1.24 (0.84 to 1.83)0.291
 More years of hypertension¶1.15 (0.94 to 1.41)0.170
 LVH on ECG1.70 (0.92 to 3.13)0.088
  • Data are presented as OR with corresponding p value. Bold numbers indicate a p value <0.1 at univariable analysis, and p value <0.05 at multivariable analysis.

  • *Defined as ≥2 glasses of alcohol per day on average.

  • †Defined as ≥30 min exercise per day, at least 5 days/week.

  • ‡n=418.

  • §n=400.

  • ¶n=407 due to missing data.

  • **On-target systolic blood pressure defined as <140 mm Hg for persons aged less than 70 years and <150 mm Hg for persons aged 70 years or more.

  • BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LnBNP, log-transformed brain natriuretic peptide; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; MI, myocardial infarction; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.