Table 2

Characteristics according to LVH using ECG and echocardiogram

CharacteristicsECG
n=422
ECHO
n=422


P value
LVH+
n=47
LVH−
n=375
P valueLVH+
n=184
LVH−
n=238
Demographics
 Age (mean, SD)70.9±6.469.5±6.50.16671.2±6.968.5±6.0<0.001
 Male (n, %)23 (48.9)163 (43.5)0.47683 (45.1)103 (43.3)0.707
 Low education (n, %)5 (10.6)48 (12.8)0.67324 (13.0)29 (12.2)0.792
 Having a partner (n, %)37 (78.7)290 (77.3)0.830141 (76.6)186 (78.2)0.711
Lifestyle
 Current smoker (n, %)4 (8.5)50 (13.3)0.35119 (10.3)35 (14.7)0.182
 Regular alcohol use (n, %)*14 (29.8)121 (32.3)0.73161 (33.2)74 (31.1)0.653
 Recommended physical exercise (n, %)†8 (17.0)60 (16.0)0.85828 (15.2)40 (16.8)0.660
Clinical characteristics and risk factors
 Previous MI (n, %)2 (4.3)17 (4.5)0.93113 (7.1)6 (2.5)0.026
 Peripheral artery disease (n, %)1 (2.1)17 (4.5)0.4425 (2.7)13 (5.5)0.166
 Previous TIA/stroke (n, %)1 (2.1)35 (9.3)0.09620 (10.9)16 (6.7)0.130
 Diabetes (n, %)4 (8.5)35 (9.3)0.85419 (10.3)20 (8.4)0.499
 BMI (mean, SD)‡27±4.028±4.60.17829±4.328±4.70.043
 BNP (median, IQR)§17 (9.9–31)9.7 (5.8–16.3)<0.00111.0 (6.9–18)9.8 (5.3–17)0.035
 Total cholesterol (mean, SD)¶5.2±1.15.1±1.00.5225.1±1.15.0±0.90.286
 LDL (mean, SD)¶3.2±0.93.1±0.90.7463.2±0.93.1±0.90.361
 SBP (mean, SD)155±23.1149±19.70.041152±21.7147±18.70.007
 SBP >140 (n, %)33 (70.2)248 (66.1)0.576128 (69.6)153 (64.3)0.254
 SBP >150 (n, %)28 (59.6)157 (41.9)0.02189 (48.4)96 (40.3)0.099
 DBP (mean, SD)83.7±10.981.6±10.70.20381±10.982±10.60.188
 DBP >90 (n, %)11 (23.4)75 (20.0)0.58536 (19.6)50 (21.0)0.715
 Blood pressure on target (n, %)**15 (31.9)160 (42.7)0.15871 (38.6)104 (43.7)0.291
 Years of hypertension (median, IQR)¶10 (4–15)10 (4–16)0.62910 (4–20)8 (4–15)0.188
  • Values for categorical variables are given as number (percentage); values for continuous variables are given as mean±SD or median (IQR). χ2 test for nominal data, t-test for normally distributed continuous data, Mann-Whitney U test for non-normally distributed data. P values <0.05 are in bold.

  • *Defined as ≥2 glasses of alcohol per day on average.

  • †Defined as ≥30 min exercise per day, at least 5 days/week.

  • ‡n=418.

  • §n=400.

  • ¶n=407 due to missing data.

  • **On-target systolic blood pressure defined as <140 mm Hg for persons aged less than 70 years and <150 mm Hg for persons aged 70 years or more.

  • BMI, body mass index; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; ECHO, echocardiogram; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; MI, myocardial infarction; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.