Table 1

Baseline characteristics of participants by intervention group

DN (n=51)PNE (n=51)
Age, years49.5 (8.9)48.1 (8.8)
Sex, n (%), male15 (29.4)15 (29.4)
Height, cm160.5 (8.2)161.2 (7.9)
Weight, kg87.5 (16.5)90.8 (15.2)
BMI, kg/m233.9 (5.5)35.1 (6.4)
Duration of symptoms, months6.0 (6.0)9.9 (11.5)
Affected side, n (%)
 Right14 (27.5)16 (31.4)
 Left13 (25.5)20 (39.2)
 Bilateral24 (47.1)15 (29.4)
 Non-medicated, n (%)11 (21.6)15 (29.4)
Medications, n yes (%)
 Neuromodulators/antiepileptic18 (35.3)22 (43.1)
 Painkillers16 (31.4)16 (31.4)
 Anti-inflammatory medication16 (31.4)17 (33.3)
 Myorelaxant medication9 (17.6)8 (15.7)
Systemic medications, n yes (%)
 Hypercholesterolaemia medication12 (23.5)3 (5.9)
 Hypertension medication14 (27.5)8 (15.7)
 Diabetes mellitus medication14 (27.5)10 (19.6)
 Osteoarthrosis medication3 (5.9)4 (7.8)
 Lung disease medication3 (5.9)3 (5.9)
 Hormonal therapy5 (9.8)7 (13.7)
 Antidepressant medication1 (2.0)0 (0.0)
 Diet supplements8 (15.7)13 (25.5)
Previous treatments, yes (%)
 Corticosteroid injections4 (7.8)10 (19.6)
 ESWT9 (17.6)9 (17.6)
 Exercise4 (7.8)6 (11.8)
 Pain, FHSQ (100–0)38.8 (18.8)40.4 (21.9)
 Function, FHSQ (100–0)57.2 (34.9)55.5 (36.3)
 Shoe, FHSQ (100–0)30.7 (35.3)32.4 (35.9)
 GFH, FHSQ (100–0)14.3 (18.2)19.2 (23.7)
 VAS mean (0–10)6.0 (2.3)5.9 (2.4)
 VAS maximum (0–10)7.6 (2.0)7.5 (2.3)
  • Values are expressed in mean (SD) unless stated.

  • *P<0.05, significant differences between groups.

  • BMI, body mass index; DN, dry needling; ESWT, extracorporeal shock-wave therapy; FHSQ, Foot Health Status Questionnaire (0 corresponds to the worst foot health; 100, the best); GFH, General Foot Health; PNE, percutaneous needle electrolysis; VAS, visual analogue scale (0 corresponds to absence of pain; 10, maximum tolerable pain).