Table 3

Mean scores, mean change within group and mean difference between groups for FHSQ and EQ-5D-5L at baseline, week 4, week 8, week 12, week 26 and week 52

VariableDN mean (SD)DN mean change from baseline
(95% CI)
PNE mean (SD)PNE mean change from baseline
(95% CI)
Adjusted mean difference between groups
(95% CI)
P value*
(effect size)†
Foot Pain, FHSQ (100–0)
 Baseline38.8 (18.8)40.4 (21.9)
 Week 473.4 (27.7)‡34.6 (21.7 to 47.5)71.9 (25.7)‡31.5 (18.7 to 44.2)−2.0 (−12.2 to 8.3)0.707 (0.001)
 Week 870.1 (28.4)‡31.4 (17.5 to 45.3)67.4 (26.8)‡27.0 (13.9 to 40.1)−3.1 (−13.8 to 7.6)0.567 (0.003)
 Week 1266.8 (24.8)‡28.1 (16.2 to 39.9)63.6 (26.1)‡23.1 (10.6 to 35.6)−3.8 (−13.6 to 5.9)0.437 (0.006)
 Week 2668.8 (25.3)‡30.0 (18.1 to 42.0)67.1 (27.1)‡26.7 (12.0 to 41.3)−2.0 (−12.3 to 8.3)0.700 (0.002)
 Week 5268.4 (25.1)‡29.7 (17.8 to 41.5)73.1 (29.0)‡32.7 (18.3 to 47.0)4.3 (−6.3 to 14.8)0.424 (0.006)
 Main effect of time; p value<0.001<0.001
Foot Function, FHSQ (100–0)
 Baseline57.2 (34.9)55.5 (36.3)
 Week 479.4 (31.2)‡22.2 (6.5 to 37.9)71.7 (32.4)‡16,2 (0,5 to 31,8)−7.1 (−18.4 to 4.3)0.220 (0.015)
 Week 872.7 (30.1)15.4 (−1.3 to 32.2)75.9 (29.7)‡20.3 (5.1 to 35.5)3.7 (−7.5 to 14.7)0.502 (0.005)
 Week 1265.7 (31.7)8.5 (−8.6 to 25.5)71.1 (29.8)15.6 (−0.7 to 31.8)5.9 (−5.6 to 17.3)0.311 (0.010)
 Week 2670.2 (29.6)13.0 (−4.5 to 30.4)70.7 (28.8)15.2 (−0.9 to 31.3)0.9 (−10.1 to 11.9)0.871 (0.001)
 Week 5269.8 (29.6)12.6 (−4.9 to 30.1)78.0 (30.2)‡22.5 (6.6 to 38.4)8.6 (−2.6 to 19.9)0.132 (0.023)
 Main effect of time; p value<0.001<0.001
Footwear, FHSQ (100–0)
 Baseline30.7 (35.3)32.4 (35.9)
 Week 435.0 (35.9)4.2 (−10.5 to 19.0)30.2 (33.9)−2.1 (−16.1 to 11.9)−5.6 (−17.1 to 5.9)0.333 (0.009)
 Week 837.6 (34.2)6.9 (−7.3 to 21.0)30.1 (35.4)−2.3 (−18.9 to 14.3)−8.3 (−20.3 to 3.7)0.174 (0.019)
 Week 1241.0 (32.1)10.3 (−3.7 to 24.3)35.8 (35.9)3.4 (−13.0 to 19.9)−6.0 (−17.8 to 5.8)0.316 (0.010)
 Week 2643.3 (32.7)12.6 (−1.9 to 27.0)39.0 (35.8)6.7 (−9.1 to 22.5)−5.0 (−16.8 to 6.7)0.397 (0.007)
 Week 5244.2 (31.3)13.4 (−1.6 to 28.5)55.9 (35.7)‡23.5 (8.9 to 38.1)10.9 (−0.5 to 22.3)0.061 (0.035)
 Main effect of time; p value0.015<0.001
GFH, FHSQ (100–0)
 Baseline14.3 (18.2)19.2 (23.7)
 Week 459.9 (34.4)‡45.5 (30.4 to 60.7)53.3 (37.0)‡34.1 (19.4 to 48.9)−9.4 (−22.7 to 3.9)0.165 (0.019)
 Week 854.6 (34.4)‡40.2 (25.4 to 55.1)51.6 (35.2)‡32.4 (16.5 to 48.2)−5.2 (−18.5 to 8.2)0.445 (0.006)
 Week 1249.5 (33.5)‡35.1 (21.3 to 49.0)53.6 (34.4)‡34.4 (20.1 to 48.6)1.1 (−11.4 to 13.6)0.860 (0.001)
 Week 2654.7 (34.3)‡40.4 (26.0 to 54.8)58.7 (34.9)‡39.5 (23.3 to 55.6)1.8 (−11.4 to 15.1)0.785 (0.001)
 Week 5254.7 (34.3)‡40.4 (26.0 to 54.8)66.4 (38.6)‡47.2 (30.1 to 64.2)9.2 (−4.7 to 23.2)0.190 (0.017)
 Main effect of time; p value<0.001<0.001
EQ-5D-5L (1–0)
 Baseline0.63 (0.23)0.67 (0.22)
 Week 40.78 (0.22)‡0.15 (0.05 to 0.25)0.76 (0.24)‡0.09 (0.01 to 0.17)−0.04 (−0.12 to 0.03)0.265 (0.013)
 Week 80.72 (0.23)0.09 (−0.03 to 0.21)0.74 (0.23)‡0.07 (0.01 to 0.13)−0.01 (−0.08 to 0.07)0.889 (0.001)
 Week 120.64 (0.30)0.02 (−0.11 to 0.15)0.70 (0.26)0.03 (−0.05 to 0.11)0.03 (−0.07 to 0.12)0.587 (0.003)
 Week 260.65 (0.29)0.02 (−0.10 to 0.14)0.73 (0.27)0.06 (−0.03 to 0.14)0.05 (−0.04 to 0.14)0.276 (0.012)
 Week 520.66 (0.27)0.02 (−0.10 to 0.14)0.77 (0.25)‡0.10 (0.02 to 0.18)0.10 (0.01 to 0.18)0.032 (0.045)§
 Main effect of time; p value0.0020.002
  • Positive between group differences represent greater change (improvement) in the PNE group compared with the DN group.

  • *P value after Bonferroni’s correction between group.

  • †Eta-squared (η²); between groups effect size.

  • ‡P<0.05 after Bonferroni’s correction comparing follow-up against baseline scores within group.

  • §P<0.05, significant differences between groups.

  • DN, dry needling; EQ-5D-5L, 0 corresponds to the worst quality of life; 1, the best; FHSQ, Foot Health Status Questionnaire (0 corresponds to the worst foot health; 100, the best); GFH, General Foot Health; PNE, percutaneous needle electrolysis.