Table 1

Participants' characteristics by multimorbidity: n (%)

CharacteristicsMultimorbidity*
Total
(n=1474)
Present
(n=848)
Absent
(n=626)
Gender
 Male651 (44.2)373 (44.0)278 (44.4)
 Female768 (52.1)447 (52.7)321 (51.3)
 Data missing552827
Age (years)
 20–3971 (4.8)17 (2.0)54 (8.6)
 40–59258 (17.5)104 (12.3)154 (24.6)
 60–79899 (61.0)580 (68.4)319 (51.0)
 ≥80219 (14.9)141 (16.6)78 (12.5)
 Data missing27621
Education
 Less than high school311 (21.1)196 (23.1)115 (18.4)
 High school602 (40.8)352 (41.5)250 (39.9)
 Junior college226 (15.3)125 (14.7)101 (16.1)
 More than or equal to college285 (19.3)158 (18.6)127 (20.3)
 Data missing501733
Annual household income (million yen)
 <3.00 (=US$27 000r)665 (45.1)419 (49.4)246 (39.3)
 3.00–4.99391 (26.5)217 (25.6)174 (27.8)
 5.00–6.99156 (10.6)87 (10.3)69 (11.0)
 7.00–9.9989 (6.0)44 (5.2)45 (7.2)
 ≥10.0040 (2.7)18 (2.1)22 (3.5)
 Data missing1336370
Patient-reported diagnostic errors
 Present57 (3.9)38 (4.5)19 (3.0)
 Absent1417 (96.1)810 (95.5)607 (97.0)
  • *Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more chronic health conditions in an individual.