Table 1

Features, dimensions and prices of the monitors/sensors

MonitorCost per unit (US$)Weight (g)Dimensions (cm)Battery/power requirementsMemory requirementsRecording/measurement intervalMeasured parameters
Ultrasonic Personal Aerosol Sampler (UPAS)*120023012.8×7.0×3.3Internal chargeable battery*Micro SD7 daysPM2.5 integrated (μg/m3)
ZeFan continuous PM2.5 monitor*7015010.6×6.3×2.6Internal chargeable battery*Internal memory (USB connection)1 minPM2.5 continuous (μg/m3)
Ogawa nitrogen dioxide (NO2/NOx) sampler†85608.0×4.0×3.0NANA7 daysNO2 (ppb) integrated; NOx (ppb) integrated
Noise Sentry sound level meter3061007.6×3.9×5.9Internal chargeable batteryInternal memory (USB connection)1 minSound levels (dBA)
AudioMoth audio recorder70956.2×5.0×2.2AA batteriesMicro SD10 s every 10 minAudio (.WAV file)
Kestrel weather meter31012012.7×4.5×2.8AA batteriesInternal memory (USB connection)1 minTemperature; relative humidity; wind speed; wind direction
Moultrie camera trap15050013.1×8.1×6.6AA batteriesSD5 minTime-lapse imagery (.jpeg file)
  • *UPAS and Zefan battery life can be extended using an external power bank. We used the always-on battery pack from Voltaic Systems (

  • †NO2/NOx: nitrogen dioxide/oxides (price includes clip, screens, plastic resealable pouch and reusable airtight storage and shipping vial).

  • dBA, A-weighted decibels; PM2.5, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometres; ppb, parts per billion.