Table 1

Summary measures and univariable association of sociodemographic characteristics with SARS-CoV-2 infection from HM CURATOR

CharacteristicsOverall
(N=20 228)
SARS-CoV-2-negative
(n=18 677)
SARS-CoV-2-positive
(n=1551)
OR (95% CI)*
Age, mean (SD)51.1 (19.0)51.0 (19.1)52.1 (18.1)1.00 (1.00 to 1.01)
Age categories (%), years
 Up to 3525.125.520.9Reference category
 36–502524.9271.32 (1.14 to 1.54)
 51–7538.738.540.81.29 (1.12 to 1.48)
 >7511.211.211.41.23 (1.02 to 1.49)
Female (%)61.962.358.30.85 (0.76 to 0.94)
Race (%)†
 White62.362.955.7Reference category
 Black21.62128.81.55 (1.37 to 1.75)
 Asian9.29.19.71.20 (1.00 to 1.44)
 Mixed/other1.31.21.51.36 (0.88 to 2.11)
 Hispanic (%)‡17.816.829.22.02 (1.79 to 2.27)
 Median zip household income (IQR)§70 658
(53 313–99 276)
70 758
(53 633–100 107)
66 523
(50 485–94 226)
−4168¶
(−6463.2 to −1872.8)
Median zip household income pentiles (%)
 I: 13 893–50 48518.217.823.6Reference category
 II: 50 642–65 80518.418.121.20.89 (0.75 to 1.04)
 III: 65 897–79 86918.318.219.60.82 (0.70 to 0.96)
 IV: 80 039–106 06718.61913.70.55 (0.46 to 0.65)
 V: 106 415–240 41717.217.316.10.71 (0.60 to0.83)
Median (IQR) population density**2797.2
(1439.1–4260.9)
2797.2
(1439.1–4211.4)
3320.3
(1904.4–4439.7)
523.1¶
(454.9 to 591.3)
Median population density pentiles (%)
 I: 1.5–1026.618.218.613.5Reference category
 II: 1034.6–2306.31919.118.11.31 (1.09 to 1.58)
 III: 2330.8–3328.917.417.418.31.45 (1.21 to 1.75)
 IV: 3360.1–4665.618.117.822.11.71 (1.43 to 2.05)
 V: 4742.6–98 025.918.117.722.61.76 (1.47 to 2.10)
Insurance status (%)
 Medicare2929.127.2Reference category
 Medicaid4.74.84.30.96 (0.73 to 1.26)
 Private/employer-based42.643.236.40.90 (0.79 to 1.03)
 Healthcare exchange1.71.632.02 (1.46 to 2.80)
 Self-pay20.62028.41.52 (1.33 to 1.75)
 Veterans affairs1.31.40.70.54 (0.29 to 1.00)
 CCI, median (IQR)2 (0–6)2 (0–6)2 (0–5)0 (−0.36 to 0.36)**
CCI categories (%)
 033.133.430.4Reference category
 1–223.723.128.61.35 (1.18 to 1.54)
 3–620.320.220.40.10 (0.65 to 1.28)
 >622.923.120.60.98 (0.84 to 1.13)
 Hypertension47.247.148.41.06 (0.95 to 1.17)
 Diabetes (without complications)24.223.730.31.40 (1.24 to 1.57)
 Obesity2828.225.20.86 (0.76 to 0.96)
  • *Unadjusted OR and 95% CI for the association between individual covariates in SARS-CoV-2 positivity.

  • †Race: missing, unknown, declined, n=1157 (5.7%).

  • ‡Ethnicity: missing, unknown, declined, n=613 (3.0%).

  • §2018 inflation-adjusted US dollars. Missing, n=1883 (9.3%). Pentiles were defined by categorising the ordered distribution of median income into five categories.

  • ¶Difference in median and 95% CI of the difference obtained via quantile regression.

  • **Population density: missing, n=1854 (9.2%). Pentiles were defined by categorising the ordered distribution of population density into five categories.

  • CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; CURATOR, COVID-19 Surveillance and Outcomes Registry; HM, Houston Methodist; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.