Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

Study designNumber joints (hip/knees)Gender
(male:female)
Country originMean age (years)Follow-up duration (months)Pain outcome measuresFunctional outcome measures
Ahedi et al54Observational cohort198 hips111:87AustraliaUTD132WOMAC PainNA
Akelman et al20RCT107 kneeUTDUSA23.584KOOS pain; SF-36 Body painSF-36 Physical; AP laxity; IKDC2000
Amin et al55Observational cohort265 knees152:113USA6730VAS PainWOMAC Function
Antony et al56Observational cohort463 knees245:218USA6324WOMAC PainNA
Arden et al57RCT474 knees185:289UK6436WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Ayral et al58RCT665 knees259:406Australia, Belgium, Canada,
Denmark, Finland, France, Hungary, Norway, Spain,
UK, USA
61.312WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Baselga Garcia-Escudero and Miguel Hernández Trillos59Observational cohort118 knees43:75Spain59.124NRS; WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Bevers et al60Observational cohort125 knees57:68The Netherlands5724WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Bingham et al53RCT2483 knees735:1748USA
Canada
Austria
Czech Republic
France
Germany
Hungary
Ireland
Italy
The Netherlands
Poland
Croatia
UTD24WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Birmingham et al61Observational cohort126 knees100:26Canada47.524KOOS PainKOOS Function; SF-36 Physical; LEFS
Bisicchia et al52RCT150 knees47:103ItalyUTD12VAS Pain; SF-36SF-36
Brandt et al62RCT431 knees0:431USA54.930WOMAC Pain; VAS PainWOMAC Function
Brown et al51RCT690 knees270:420USAUTD32 weeksWOMAC Pain; NRS weekly painWOMAC Function; SF-36 Function
Brown et al50RCT621 hips237:384USAUTD32 weeksWOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Bruyere et al63RCT319 knee0:319Belgium64.036WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Campbell et al49RCT100 knees28:72AustraliaUTD120American Knee Society Score; WOMAC PainAmerican Knee Society Score (function); WOMAC Function
Chandrasekaran et al48Case control111 hips66:45USAUTD24Modified Harris Hip Score; Nonarthritic hip score; VAS PinModified Harris Hip Score; Nonarthritic hip score; Hip Outcome Score; Sports & ADLs
Chandrasekaran et al47Case control186 hips96:90USAUTD24Modified Harris Hip Score; Nonarthritic hip score; VAS PinModified Harris Hip Score; Nonarthritic hip score; Hip Outcome Score; Sports & ADLs
Conrozier et al 64RCT205 knees88:117France6526WOMAC Pain; NRS walking painWOMAC Function
Davis et al19Case control3132 kneesUTDUSAUTD48WOMAC Pain; KOOS PainWOMAC Function
Dougados et al46RCT507 hips202:305FranceUTD36VAS PainLequesne Index
Dowsey et al65Observational cohort478 knees147:331Australia70.824IKSS PainIKSS Function
Eckstein et al45RCT1412 knees611:801AustriaUTD48WOMAC PainNA
Ettinger et al44RCT439 knees131:308USAUTD18Pain intensity scorePhysical Test
Felson et al66Observational cohort3498 knees867:1206USA61.230WOMAC PainPASE
Felson et al67Observational cohort330 knees111:2111USA62.115NAQuadriceps strength (N)
Filardo et al43RCT183 knees112:71ItalyUTD48KOOS Pain; IKDCKOOS Function; Tegner; IKDC
Glass et al42Observational cohort4648 knees918:1486USAUTD24WOMAC Pain; NRS PainWOMAC Function
Guermazi et al41Case control493 knees185:308USAUTD60WOMAC PainPASE
Hamilton et al68Observational cohort805 knees416:289UK6630WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Hellio le Graverand et al69RCT1457 knees343:1114USA
Canada
Australia, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary,
Italy,
Poland, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Spain, Argentina
Peru
61.0180Oxford Knee ScoreOxford Knee Score; American Knee Society Score; Tegner
Henriksen et al40RCT157 knees28:129DenmarkUTD24WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Hill et al5RCT202 knees102:100Australia6112KOO PainKOOS Function and kinematic assessment
Hochberg et al70RCT522 knees84:438France
Germany
Poland
Spain
62.724WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Hoeksma et al71RCT109 hips33:76The Netherlands726WOMAC Pain; Huskisson’s VAS; EQ-5D PainWOMAC Function; EQ-5D Function
Housman et al 39RCT391 knees130:261USA
Canada
France
UK
Germany
UTD6SF-36 Body Pain; Harris Hip Score; VAS PainSF-36 Function; Harris Hip Score; ROM
Huang et al72RCT264 knees39:93Taiwan626WOMAC PainNA
Huizinga et al73Observational cohort298 knees201:97The Netherlands5112VAS PainLequesne index; walking speed
Jin et al6RCT413 knees205:208Australia63.224WOMAC Pain; VAS PainWOMAC Function
Kahn et al74Observational cohort174 knees70:102USA67.06WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Karsdal et al38RCT2207 knees773:1424DenmarkUTD24WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Katz et al37RCT330 knees143:187USAUTD12KOO PainWOMAC Function; SF-36 Function
Kim et al75RCT352 knees9:153Republic of Korea68.1144WOMACKnee Society Knee Score Function; ROM; UCLA Activity
Kinds et al18RCT565 kneesUTDThe NetherlandsUTD60WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Kongtharvonskul et al 36RCT148 knees25:123ThailandUTD6WOMAC Pain; VAS PainWOMAC Function
Lequesne et al76RCT163 hips102:61France63.224VAS PainLequesne Index
Lohmander et al35RCT170 knees52:116Bulgaria
Canada
Croatia
Finland
Germany
Poland
Serbia
Africa
Sweden
USA
UTD12WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Maheu et al8RCT345 hips159:186France62.236WOMAC Pain; Global Hip PainLequesne Index; WOMAC Function; Global handicap NRS
Marsh et al34RCT168 knees57:112CanadaUTD24WOMACWOMAC
McAlindion et al33RCT146 knees57:89USAUTD24WOMAC PainWOMAC Function; Physical Test
Messier et al32RCT316 knees89:227USAUTD18WOMAC PainWOMAC Function; Physical Test
Messier et al77RCT142 knees37:105USA68.518WOMAC PainWOMAC Function; Physical Test
Messier et al78RCT454 knees128:325USA6618WOMAC PainWOMAC Function; Physical Test; SF-36 Physical
Michel et al31RCT300 knees146:154SwitzerlandUTD24WOMAC PainWOMAC Function; Physical Test
Muraki et al79Observational cohort1558 knees553:1005Japan67.040WOMAC PainWOMAC Function;
Muraki et al80Observational cohort1525 knees546:979Japan67.040WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Pavelka et al30RCT277 knees; 117 hips109:285Czech Republic5860NALequesne Index
Pavelka et al81RCT202 knees45:157Czech RepublicUTD36WOMAC PainWOMAC Function; Lequesne Index
Pham et al29Observational cohort301 knees97:204FranceUTD12VAS PainLequesne Index
Podsiadlo et al28Observational cohort114 knees49:65AustraliaUTD72WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Rat et al82RCT300 knees118:182France676SF-36 Body Pain; OAKHQOL Pain; VAS PainLequense Index; SF-36 Physical; OAKHQOL Physical Activity
Raynauld et al27RCT123 knees44:79CanadaUTD24WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Reginster et al26RCT212 knees50:162BelgiumUTD36WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Reginster et al83RCT1371 knees425:946Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
France
Germany
Italy
Lithuania
The Netherlands
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russian Federation
Spain
UK
62.936WOMAC Pain; VAS PainWOMAC Function
Riddle and Jiranek25Observational cohort467 knees209:258USAUTD24KOOS PainWOMAC Function
Romagnoli et al84Observational cohort105 knees16:69Italy67.766Knee Society Score Clinical; VAS PainKnee Society Score Function; ROM
Roman-Blas et al24RCT158 knees26:132SpainUTD6WOMAC Pain; VAS PainWOMAC Function
Rozendaal et al31RCT222 hips68:154The NetherlandsUTD24WOMAC Pain; VAS PainWOMAC Function
Sanchez-Ramirez et al85Observational cohort186 knees59:127Canada6124WOAMC PainWOMAC Function; Physical Test
Sawitzke et al86RCT662 knees215:447USA5724WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Skou et al87Observational cohort1682 knees434:818Denmark62.284WOMAC PainPASE; Physical Test
Sowers et al88Observational cohort724 knees0:363USA56132NAWOMAC Function; Physical Test
Spector et al89RCT284 knees115:169UK63.312WOMAC PainWOMAC Function
Sun et al90RCT121 knees31:90Taiwan636WOMAC Pain; VAS PainWOMAC Function; Lequesne Index; Physical Test
Urish et al22RCT336 knees96:67USAUTD36WOMACWOMAC
Valdes et al17Observational cohort860 knees; 928 hipsUTDUKUTD38WOMAC PainNA
Van der Esch et al98Observational cohort402 knees64:137The Netherlands61.224NRS PainWOMAC Function; Physical Test
Weng et al91RCT264 knees26:106Taiwan6412VAS PainLequesne Index; ROM; Physical Test
White et al92Observational cohort2110 knees992:118USA61.084VAS PainWOMAC Function
Witt et al93RCT294 knees70:154Germany64.012WOMAC Pain; SF-36 Body Pain; VAS PainWOMAC Function; SF-36 Function
Yu et al21Observational cohort204 knees74:130AustraliaUTD12KOOS Pain; VAS PainKOOS ADL; Physical Function
Yusuf et al94Observational cohort74 knees; 31 hips; 11 hip and knees19:98The Netherlands6072WOMAC Pain; SF-36 Body Pain; Pain on movementWOMAC Function; SF-36 Function; Physical Test
  • ADLs, activities of daily living; IKDC, International Knee Documentation Committee; KOOS, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score; LEFS, Lower Extremity Functional Scale; NA, not applicable; NRS, Numerical Rating Scale; OAKHQOL, Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip quality of Life Questionnaire; PASE, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly; RCT, randomised controlled trial; ROM, range of motion; SF-36, Short Form-36; UTD, unable to determine; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale; WOMAC, Western Ontario and Mcmaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index.