Table 2

JBI levels of evidence for effectiveness, diagnosis and meaningfulness23

Level of evidenceStudy designs
EffectivenessDiagnosisMeaningfulness
1Experimental designs including:Studies of test accuracy among consecutive patients:Qualitative or mixed-methods systematic review
 a. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) a. Systematic review of studies of test accuracy among consecutive patients
 b. Systematic review of RCTs and other study designs
 c. mRCTs b. Study of test accuracy among consecutive patients
 d. Pseudo-RCTs
2Quasi-experimental designs including:Studies of test accuracy among non-consecutive patients:Qualitative or mixed-methods synthesis
 a. Systematic review of quasi-experimental studiesa. Systematic review of studies of test accuracy among non-consecutive patients
 b. Systematic review of quasi-
 experimental and other lower study designs
 d. Quasi-experimental prospectively controlled studyb. Study of test accuracy among non-consecutive patients
 e. Pretest post-test or historic/retrospective control group study
3Observational—Analytical designs including:Diagnostic case-control studies:Single qualitative study
 a. Systematic review of comparable cohort studies a. Systematic review of diagnostic case-control studies
 b. Systematic review of comparable cohort and other lower study designs
 c. Cohort study with control group b. Diagnostic case-control study
 d. Case controlled study
 e. Observational study without a control group
4Observational—Descriptive designs including:Diagnostic yield studies:Systematic review of expert opinion
 a. Systematic review of descriptive studies a. Systematic review of diagnostic yield studies
 b. Individual diagnostic yield study
 b. Cross-sectional study
 c. Case series b. Individual diagnostic yield study
 d. Case study
5Expert opinion and bench research including:Expert opinion and bench research:Expert opinion
 a. Systematic review of expert opinion a. Systematic review of expert opinion
 b. Expert consensus b. Expert consensus
 c. Bench research/single expert opinion c. Bench research/ single expert opinion
  • JBI, Joanna Briggs Institute.