Table 4

Summary of effectiveness outcomes

Effectiveness outcomeCPAPStandard oxygen therapyTotalAbsolute risk difference
N=42N=35N=77(95% CI)
30-day mortalityn=42n=35n=77
129212.90%
−28.60%−25.70%−27.30%(−19.7 to 25.4)
Intubatedn=33n=29n=62
2132.60%
−6.10%−3.40%−4.80%(−10.5 to 15.7)
Admission to critical caren=35n=30n=654.80%
426(−12.1 to 21.7)
−11.40%−6.50%−9.20%
Median of the difference (95% CI)
Median length of stay (days, IQR)n=22n=22n=443
1078(−0.00 to 6.00)
(6.5 to 12)(5 to 9.8)(5.5 to 11.2)
Change in patient reported breathlessness over prehospital interval (VAS, IQR)n=18n=18n=36−2
−3−2−2.5(−3.00 to 0.00)
(−4 to –2)(−4 to –1)(−4 to –1)
Change in clinician assessed breathlessness over prehospital interval (VAS, IQR)n=41n=35n=76−1
−3−2−2(−2 to 0)
(−5 to –1)(−3.5 to 1)(−4 to –1)
30-day EQ-5D-5L (IQR)n=22n=18n=400.08
0.820.730.76(−0.6 to 0.26)
(0.58 to 0.95)(0.43 to 0.89)(0.48 to 0.92)
Median change in EQ-5D-5L (IQR)n=22n=18n=400.0 (−0.12 to 0.16)
0.090.10.09
(−0.01 to 0.16)(−0.06 to 0.19)(−0.02 to 0.18)
  • 'N' refers to the total sample. 'n' refers to the subgroup numbers.

  • EQ-5D-5L, EuroQOL-5D-5L value sets; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale.