Table 2

Comparison of incidence and HRs of outcomes by medication status

Beta-blocker or combination drug use
NoYes
OutcomesEventPYRate*EventPYRate*Crude HR
(95% CI)
Adjusted HR
(95% CI)†
Adjusted HR
(98.75% CI)†
Adjusted HR
(95% CI)‡
Pneumonia58634 39917.059534 25717.41.02 (0.91 to 1.15)1.06 (0.94 to 1.19)1.06 (0.92 to 1.23)1.19 (0.58 to 2.45)
Acute respiratory failure34535 2429.7937735 07410.81.10 (0.95 to 1.27)1.16 (1.00 to 1.34)1.16 (0.96 to 1.39)1.45 (0.54 to 3.85)
 ≤523324 5919.4824124 7279.751.03 (0.86 to 1.23)1.13 (0.94 to 1.36)1.13 (0.90 to 1.43)1.55 (0.46 to 5.20)
 >511210 65110.513610 34613.11.25 (0.98 to 1.61)1.19 (0.93 to 1.53)1.19 (0.87 to 1.64)1.27 (0.23 to 7.11)
Stroke44134 31612.954933 68316.31.27 (1.12 to 1.44)1.39 (1.23 to 1.58)1.39 (1.19 to 1.64)0.73 (0.34 to 1.57)
 Haemorrhagic stroke621.81651.931.07 (0.75 to 1.51)1.14 (0.80 to 1.61)1.14 (0.73 to 1.77)0.55 (0.09 to 3.33)
 Ischaemic stroke37911.048414.41.30 (1.14 to 1.49)1.44 (1.26 to 1.64)1.44 (1.21 to 1.71)0.80 (0.35 to 1.86)
CAD193027 12371.2182327 43166.50.93 (0.88 to 1.00)0.93 (0.87 to 0.99)0.93 (0.86 to 1.01)0.85 (0.61 to 1.18)
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001; ****p<0.0125.

  • *Incidence rate, per 1000 person-years.

  • †Multivariable analysis includes age, gender and comorbidities of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, COPD, asthma, CKD, pneumonia, acute respiratory failure, stroke and CAD, and the use of the medications PGA, CAI, alpha agonist and pilocarpine.

  • ‡Multivariable analysis includes age, gender, multiplicative interaction of age and sex and comorbidities of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, COPD, asthma, CKD, pneumonia, acute respiratory failure, stroke and CAD, and the use of the medications PGA, CAI, alpha agonist and pilocarpine.

  • CAD, coronary artery disease; CAI, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; PGA, prostaglandin analogue; PY, person-years.