Table 1

Characteristics of the study sites for the Febrile Illness Evaluation in a Broad Range of Endemicities

BangladeshLao People’s Democratic RepublicMalawiMozambiqueZimbabwe
Site-specific ethics committees*Bangladesh Medical Research Council National Research Ethics Committee, Chittagong Medical College Ethical Review Committee, Oxford Tropical Research Committee†National Ethics Committee for Health Research, Oxford Tropical Research Ethics Committee†University of Malawi College of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Research Ethics Committee†Comité Institucional de Bioética para a Saúde do Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça, Comité Nacional de Bioética em Saúde de MoçambiqueMedical Research Council of Zimbabwe
Name of health facilities where patients are recruitedCMCH and Bangladesh Institute of Tropical and Infectious DiseasesPhonhong Vientiane Provincial HospitalChikwawa District HospitalManhiça District HospitalHarare Central Hospital, Chitungwiza General Hospital and three primary care clinics in Harare City
Region of countrySoutheastNorthwestSouthSouthNorth central
Demographic classificationUrban, periurban and ruralPeriurban and ruralRuralRuralUrban
HIV epidemiology (2018 national seroprevalence among adults aged 15–49 years‡ unless otherwise indicated)<0.1%0.3%, no site-specific estimates available9.2%, no site-specific estimates available12.6%,
39.7% among adults aged 18–47 years in Manhiça in 2012§
11.5% in Harare‡
Malaria epidemiologyLow transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, peaking from June to September; 2013–2016 average annual incidence of 4.53 per 1000 population¶; in 2019, 1.7% of CMCH febrile inpatients screened had positive malaria test**Low transmission of P. falciparum and P. vivax;<1% of symptomatic patients in 2008–10 had laboratory-confirmed malaria††Perennial transmission of P. falciparum, peaking from December to May; over 12 months in 2016–2017, 12.5% of surveyed children aged <5 years had symptomatic malaria‡‡Perennial transmission of P. falciparum, with marked seasonality peaking from November to April; approximately 7% malaria prevalence in children <5 years of age§§No local malaria transmission; Harare health facilities may receive malaria-infected patients referred or visiting from endemic areas of Zimbabwe¶¶
  • *All implemented versions of the protocol are approved by the site-specific ethics committee/s for each site and by the research and ethics committee of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.

  • †Oxford Tropical Research Ethics Committee and Liverpool School for Tropical Medicine Research Ethics Committee have reciprocal agreements for protocol review and approval with the research and ethics committee of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.

  • ‡UNAIDS AIDSinfo Data Sheet, 2018 national data (and subnational data for Zimbabwe) (

  • §González R, et al ‘HIV incidence and spatial clustering in a rural area of southern Mozambique,’PLoS One, 2015 Jul 6;10(7):e0132053.

  • ¶Reported in Mayxay et al.2

  • **Kabaghe AN, et al., ‘Short-term changes in anaemia and malaria parasite prevalence in children under 5 years during 1 year of repeated cross-sectional surveys in rural Malawi.’ Am J Trop Med Hyg, 97(5), 2017, pp. 1568–1575, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.17–0335.

  • ††Personal communication, Quique Bassat.

  • ‡‡US President’s Malaria Initiative Malaria Operational Plan for Zimbabwe, fiscal year 2017.

  • §§Noé A, et al‘Mapping the stability of malaria hotspots in Bangladesh from 2013 to 2016,’Mal J, 2018; 17:259–79

  • ¶¶Personal communication, Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Malaria Research Group, Chattogram, Bangladesh.

  • CMCH, Chittagong Medical College Hospital.