Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes without retinopathy

CharacteristicsAllQuarter of grip strengthP value
Q1 (lowest)Q2Q3Q4 (highest)
No of subjects1029258260255256
Female, n (%)616 (59.86)224 (86.82)215 (82.69)129 (50.59)48 (18.75)<0.001
Use of insulin, n (%)163 (16.03)40 (15.69)39 (15.18)39 (15.42)45 (17.86)0.836
Age, years64.5±7.766.2±7.264.7±7.463.6±7.863.6±8.1<0.001
Duration of diabetes, years8.1±6.68.7±6.78.3±6.77.5±6.38.1±6.60.214
HbA1c, %6.8±1.36.8±1.26.7±1.36.8±1.36.9±1.40.507
Height, cm160.1±8.1155.4±6.9157.8±6.7161.7±6.9165.5±8.0<0.001
Weight, kg63.7±11.559.5±9.960.7±9.965.0±10.069.7±13.0<0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg133.7±18.5132.6±19.2134.3±18.4134.1±18.2133.9±18.10.714
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg70.7±10.469.6±10.870.3±9.971.4±10.071.4±10.90.112
Total cholesterol, mmol/L4.8±1.04.9±1.05.0±1.14.8±1.04.6±1.00.001
Serum creatinine, μmol/L70.3±19.368.0±20.265.2±19.871.3±18.376.6±17.0<0.001
HDL-C, mmol/L1.3±0.41.4±0.41.4±0.41.3±0.41.2±0.4<0.001
LDL-C, mmol/L3.1±0.93.1±0.93.2±1.03.1±0.93.0±0.90.122
Triglycerides, mmol/L2.3±1.62.4±1.62.3±1.52.3±1.72.3±1.70.976
C reactive protein, mg/L2.7±7.42.8±3.53.1±12.32.4±3.82.4±6.50.658
Microalbuminuria, mg/mL4.1±14.94.7±14.74.9±23.03.3±8.03.6±9.00.530
BCVA, logMAR0.2±0.10.2±0.10.2±0.10.2±0.20.2±0.10.133
Intraocular pressure, mm Hg16.2±2.716.4±2.816.2±2.615.9±2.716.1±2.80.278
Central corneal thickness, μm546.1±31.5545.8±29.6544.8±30.8542.8±33.1550.9±31.90.026
Axial length, mm23.6±1.123.4±1.023.5±1.223.6±1.123.8±1.0<0.001
  • Bold indicates statistically significant.

  • BCVA, best-corrected visual acuity; HbA1c, haemoglobin A1c; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.