Table 3

Association of grip strength and retinal thickness by multivariate linear regression analyses

Retinal thicknessModel 1*Model 2†
Coefficient95% CIP valueCoefficient95% CIP value
Average, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 22.16(−0.28 to 4.61)0.0831.71(−0.75 to 4.168)0.174
 Quantile 32.10(−0.48 to 4.69)0.1111.33(−1.28 to 3.935)0.319
 Quantile 43.68(0.81 to 6.55)0.0123.35(0.44 to 6.256)0.024
 Per 1 kg increase0.14(0.03 to 0.25)0.0110.13(0.02 to 0.24)0.024
Central field, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 22.50(−1.42 to 6.43)0.2111.90(−2.04 to 5.831)0.345
 Quantile 35.08(0.92 to 9.24)0.0174.62(0.45 to 8.790)0.030
 Quantile 44.53(−0.08 to 9.13)0.0544.15(−0.49 to 8.801)0.080
 Per 1 kg increase0.16(−0.02 to 0.33)0.0820.15(−0.03 to 0.32)0.109
Outer superior, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 23.03(−0.08 to 6.14)0.0562.65(−0.43 to 5.725)0.091
 Quantile 32.49(−0.80 to 5.78)0.1381.47(−1.79 to 4.734)0.375
 Quantile 44.44(0.80 to 8.08)0.0173.74(0.11 to 7.373)0.043
 Per 1 kg increase0.19(0.05 to 0.33)0.0080.16(0.02 to 0.30)0.022
Outer inferior, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 21.49(−1.65 to 4.62)0.3521.27(−1.83 to 4.373)0.420
 Quantile 31.17(−2.15 to 4.49)0.4890.49(−2.79 to 3.778)0.768
 Quantile 41.86(−1.82 to 5.53)0.3211.90(−1.76 to 5.561)0.308
 Per 1 kg increase0.06(−0.08 to 0.21)0.3680.06(−0.08 to 0.20)0.377
Outer nasal, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 21.72(−1.16 to 4.60)0.2431.63(−1.20 to 4.475)0.259
 Quantile 31.16(−1.89 to 4.21)0.4570.55(−2.46 to 3.557)0.721
 Quantile 43.64(0.26 to 7.02)0.0353.46(0.11 to 6.810)0.043
 Per 1 kg increase0.14(0.01 to 0.27)0.0310.14(0.01 to 0.26)0.040
Outer temporal, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 21.94(−0.78 to 4.66)0.1621.83(−0.80 to 4.449)0.172
 Quantile 31.88(−1.01 to 4.76)0.2021.02(−1.76 to 3.799)0.472
 Quantile 43.36(0.17 to 6.56)0.0392.72(−0.37 to 5.818)0.085
 Per 1 kg increase0.14(0.02 to 0.27)0.0220.12(0.00 to 0.24)0.053
Inner superior, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 23.62(0.61 to 6.63)0.0183.18(0.13 to 6.226)0.041
 Quantile 32.39(−0.80 to 5.58)0.1421.68(−1.54 to 4.912)0.306
 Quantile 44.52(0.99 to 8.05)0.0124.46(0.86 to 8.053)0.015
 Per 1 kg increase0.15(0.01 to 0.29)0.0320.14(0.00 to 0.28)0.046
Inner inferior, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 21.73(−1.47 to 4.94)0.2890.88(−2.29 to 4.059)0.586
 Quantile 31.01(−2.39 to 4.40)0.5610.01(−3.36 to 3.377)0.995
 Quantile 43.51(−0.25 to 7.27)0.0673.38(−0.37 to 7.133)0.077
 Per 1 kg increase0.15(0.00 to 0.29)0.0480.13(−0.01 to 0.28)0.069
Inner nasal, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 22.15(−0.89 to 5.18)0.1651.40(−1.67 to 4.473)0.372
 Quantile 32.02(−1.19 to 5.24)0.2171.25(−2.00 to 4.509)0.451
 Quantile 43.86(0.30 to 7.42)0.0343.50(−0.13 to 7.124)0.059
 Per 1 kg increase0.15(0.01 to 0.28)0.0380.13(−0.01 to 0.27)0.067
Inner temporal, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 21.34(−1.55 to 4.23)0.3630.66(−2.27 to 3.577)0.660
 Quantile 31.82(−1.24 to 4.88)0.2430.91(−2.18 to 4.008)0.563
 Quantile 43.40(0.02 to 6.79)0.0492.84(−0.61 to 6.287)0.106
 Per 1 kg increase0.15(0.02 to 0.28)0.0210.13(0.00 to 0.26)0.055
  • Bold indicates statistically significant.

  • *Model 1: adjusted for age and sex.

  • †Model 2: adjusted for age, gender, axial length, haemoglobin A1c, diabetes duration, use of insulin, height, weight, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.