Table 4

Association of grip strength and choroidal thickness by multivariate linear regression analyses

Choroidal thicknessModel 1*Model 2†
Coefficient95% CIP valueCoefficient95% CIP value
Average, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 213.37(1.43 to 25.31)0.02813.51(2.26 to 24.75)0.019
 Quantile 33.66(−8.98 to 16.31)0.5701.66(−10.26 to 13.58)0.784
 Quantile 417.52(3.52 to 31.51)0.01420.42(7.14 to 33.69)0.003
 Per 1 kg increase0.57(0.03 to 1.11)0.0370.65(0.13 to 1.16)0.013
Central field, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 213.00(−0.82 to 26.83)0.06513.47(0.50 to 26.45)0.042
 Quantile 31.02(−13.63 to 15.66)0.892−1.39(−15.14 to 12.35)0.842
 Quantile 418.06(1.85 to 34.27)0.02921.39(6.08 to 36.70)0.006
 Per 1 kg increase0.57(−0.05 to 1.20)0.0720.65(0.06 to 1.24)0.031
Outer superior, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 25.65(−6.56 to 17.87)0.3645.01(−6.78 to 16.80)0.405
 Quantile 30.89(−12.05 to 13.83)0.893−1.34(−13.84 to 11.15)0.833
 Quantile 410.78(−3.54 to 25.11)0.14013.60(−0.32 to 27.51)0.055
 Per 1 kg increase0.39(−0.16 to 0.94)0.1670.47(−0.07 to 1.00)0.088
Outer inferior, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 216.85(4.29 to 29.40)0.00916.59(4.53 to 28.65)0.007
 Quantile 37.11(−6.19 to 20.40)0.2954.83(−7.95 to 17.61)0.459
 Quantile 422.49(7.77 to 37.21)0.00324.36(10.12 to 38.59)0.001
 Per 1 kg increase0.73(0.16 to 1.30)0.0120.77(0.22 to 1.32)0.006
Outer nasal, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 213.79(0.77 to 26.81)0.03814.83(2.52 to 27.14)0.018
 Quantile 38.24(−5.55 to 22.03)0.2417.26(−5.79 to 20.30)0.275
 Quantile 413.45(−1.82 to 28.71)0.08416.76(2.23 to 31.28)0.024
 Per 1 kg increase0.38(−0.21 to 0.97)0.2020.47(−0.09 to 1.03)0.102
Outer temporal, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 214.00(3.40 to 24.60)0.01013.19(2.87 to 23.50)0.012
 Quantile 32.00(−9.23 to 13.22)0.727−0.18(−11.12 to 10.75)0.974
 Quantile 417.94(5.51 to 30.36)0.00520.07(7.90 to 32.24)0.001
 Per 1 kg increase0.64(0.16 to 1.12)0.0090.71(0.24 to 1.18)0.003
Inner superior, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 28.10(−5.28 to 21.48)0.2358.11(−4.63 to 20.85)0.212
 Quantile 30.04(−14.13 to 14.21)0.996−2.23(−15.73 to 11.28)0.746
 Quantile 413.39(−2.29 to 29.08)0.09416.60(1.56 to 31.64)0.031
 Per 1 kg increase0.48(−0.13 to 1.08)0.1220.55(−0.03 to 1.13)0.062
Inner inferior, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 219.10(5.49 to 32.72)0.00619.74(6.77 to 32.71)0.003
 Quantile 38.81(−5.61 to 23.22)0.2317.25(−6.49 to 20.99)0.301
 Quantile 426.26(10.30 to 42.22)0.00129.10(13.80 to 44.41)0.000
 Per 1 kg increase0.85(0.24 to 1.47)0.0070.92(0.33 to 1.52)0.002
Inner nasal, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 213.98(−0.03 to 27.99)0.05114.48(1.29 to 27.67)0.031
 Quantile 34.34(−10.50 to 19.18)0.5662.01(−11.97 to 15.98)0.778
 Quantile 417.43(1.00 to 33.86)0.03820.37(4.80 to 35.94)0.010
 Per 1 kg increase0.52(−0.11 to 1.15)0.1070.58(−0.02 to 1.18)0.058
Inner temporal, μm
 Quantile 11.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Quantile 215.67(3.43 to 27.91)0.01215.97(4.32 to 27.62)0.007
 Quantile 30.55(−12.41 to 13.51)0.934−1.20(−13.55 to 11.14)0.848
 Quantile 417.77(3.42 to 32.12)0.01521.40(7.65 to 35.15)0.002
 Per 1 kg increase0.60(0.04 to 1.15)0.0340.71(0.17 to 1.24)0.009
  • Bold indicates statistically significant.

  • *Model 1: adjusted for age and sex.

  • †Model 2: adjusted for age, gender, axial length, haemoglobin A1c, diabetes duration, use of insulin, height, weight, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.