Table 2

Methodological quality scores of 9 items for studies regarding risk factors*

Author123456789Summary score
Mino (1999)15++++–†+5
Stansfeld (1999)16+++++–‡+6
Bϋltmann (2002)1+++++–§+6
Bonde (2005)17+++++++8
Godin (2005)18+++++–**+6
Kivimaki 10-town study (2007)19+++++–††+6
Kivimaki hospital study (2007)19++++++–††+7
Magnusson Hanson (2008)2++++–‡‡+5
Devereux (2011)20+?+++–§§+5
Sundin (2011)21++++++¶¶+7
Inoue (2013)3+++++++***+8
Laine (2014)22++++++†††+7
Taniguchi (2015)23++++++‡‡‡+7
Andersen (2017)24++++++§§§+7
Oshio (2017)25+++++++¶¶¶+8
Kind (2018)26+++++++****+8
Pihl-Thingvad (2019)27+++++++††††+8
Total item score1413111241717917
  • *Criteria and scoring options for quality score for these nine items are reported in the Methods section.

  • †Adjusted for age, sex, family life satisfaction, perceived physical health.

  • ‡Adjusted for age, sex, employment grade and baseline GHQ score.

  • §Adjusted for age, sex, education, living alone, employment status, presence of disease, baseline fatigue score.

  • ¶Adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, leisure time activity, pain threshold, marital status, psychiatric disorder.

  • **Adjusted for age, sex, education, threat from global economy, job dissatisfaction, workplace instability.

  • ††Adjusted for age, sex, occupational status.

  • ‡‡Adjusted for age, sex, marital status, country of birth, social class, physical exhaustion.

  • §§Adjusted for age, sex, shift work.

  • ¶¶Adjusted for age, sex, marital status, years of (current) employment (only for job demands).

  • ***Adjusted for age, sex, education, marital status, chronic physical diseases, occupation, life events, neuroticism.

  • †††Adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic position, marital status, employment, health behaviour, limiting longstanding illness, physical work.

  • ‡‡‡Adjusted for age, sex, job carrier, occupation, marital status, employment, work shift, smoking status.

  • §§§Adjusted for age, sex, marital status, employment years, occupational characteristics and exposures.

  • ¶¶¶Adjusted for age, sex, education, occupation, hours worked per week, household income, family member to share living expenses, firm codes.

  • ****Adjusted for age, sex, work experience, employment years, private stressors.

  • ††††Adjusted for age, sex, somatic and mental health at baseline, lifestyle factors, work-related factors.

  • GHQ, General Health Questionnaire.