Table 2

Effect of social factors on comorbid chronic disease

ThemesSubthemesIncluded papers
Aminu et al17Arokia
samy
et al18
Garin
et al19
Kulkarni and Shinde20Lotfalian et al21Patel
et al22
Patel
et al23
Raj
kumar et al24
Shukla et al25Weaver26
Demographic risk factorsOlder age+(M)+(M)+(D)+(D)+(DM/H)+(C)
Female gender+(D)+(M)+(D)+(D)+(C)+(DM/H)
Marital status (married)−(D)−(M)−(D)−(D)−(D)
Social risk factorsLow educational attainment+(M)+(M)+(D)+(D)+(C)
Rural area of residence+(D)−(M)+(D)+(D)−(C)
Income inequality and unemployment+(D)−(M)+(D)+(D)
Poverty−(M)+(D)+(D)
Limited social capital−(D)−(D)−(DM)
Stressful life events+(D)
Low health service use−(D)−(DM)
Adverse
health behaviours
Physical inactivity+(D)+(D/C)+(DM)
Poor diet and obesity+(D)+(D)+(D/DM/H)+(D)+(DM/H)
Tobacco and alcohol use+(D)+(DM)
  • (+) positive association, (−) negative association, blank: information not available or no association.

  • C, chronic condition (unspecified); D, depression; DM, diabetes mellitus; H, hypertension; M, multimorbidity.