Table 1

WHO IMCI criteria used to diagnose severe pneumonia or very severe disease

Variable nameWHO IMCI criteria
Severe pneumonia cases detected for the intervention groupA child with cough or difficult breathing plus at least one of the following signs:
  • Any general danger signs (unable to drink or breast feed, vomiting everything, convulsion or lethargic) or stridor in calm child


In addition, one of the following symptoms of pneumonia:
  • Fast breathing (respiratory rate ≥50 breaths/min in children aged 2 up to 11 months and respiratory rate ≥40 breaths/min in children aged 12 months up to 5 years)

  • Lower chest wall in-drawing

    AND/OR

  • Oxygen saturation <90% as measured by pulse oximetry

Severe pneumonia cases detected for the control groupA child with cough or difficult breathing plus at least one of the following signs:
  • Any general danger signs (unable to drink or breastfeed, vomiting everything, convulsion or lethargic) or stridor in calm child


In addition, one of the following symptoms of pneumonia:
  • Fast breathing (respiratory rate ≥50 breaths/min in children aged 2 up to 11 months and respiratory rate ≥40 breaths/min in children aged 12 months up to 5 years)

  • Lower chest wall in-drawing

  • IMCI, Integrated Management of Childhood Illness.