Table 2

Description of the contents, theoretical underpinnings and activities in the For Our Children’s Sake intervention

SessionCRC article in focusAim with sessionTheoretical underpinningCore activitiesMaterial
(1) Welcome to the groupNo specified article
  • Get to know each other

  • Group structure

  • Reflect on parenting and children’s needs

  1. Introducing the child and your relationship

  2. Group rules

  3. Group reflection on the meaning and feelings related to parenting

  4. Setting individual goals

  1. List of children in a drawn heart which is then present in all sessions

  2. List of rules

  3. Group reflection from a text

  4. Writing goals in the workbook

(2) Me as a parent (cooperation between the parents)18
  • Reflect on how the childhood influences parenting

  • Increase understanding for the other parent

  • Reflect on how I want to evolve as a parent

  1. Values from own childhood/parents – what do I want to keep in my own parenting

  2. Differences between me and the other parent, how can we cooperate

  3. Parenting to me

  4. An important person in my own childhood

  1. Group reflection from a text, list of values on white board

  2. Group discussion, writing own suggestion in workbook

  3. Group reflection from a text, discussion on what a good parent is

  4. Describing the person in the workbooks

(3) Children’s thoughts and feelings12
  • Increase understanding for children’s feelings when parents commit crime

  • Provide knowledge of the importance for children to be informed about the situation

Research on children of incarcerated parents41
  1. Taking the child’s perspective on parental incarceration

  2. Reflection on thoughts and feeling related to watching the film ‘Emilia‘, including tips on how to tell the child about crime and custody

  1. Film ‘Emilia’ – the child’s perspective on when a father is put in custody, including real stories from several children

  2. Discussion in smaller groups aided by text on separation, guilt and shame and advice on how talk to the child about crime and custody

(4) Children’s development and needs27
  • Provide knowledge on child development

  • Discuss risk and protective factors

  • Map persons of importance to your child

Developmental psychology42
Risk and protective factors43
Sense of coherence44
  1. Children’s age specific needs

  2. Children’s adaptation to rules

  3. Risk and protective factors for children’s healthy development

  4. Mapping of persons of importance in the own child’s life

  1. Discussion and sharing of own experiences aided by text on children’s needs

  2. Discussion on what happens to a child who gets too strict and too loose rules

  3. Reflections on factors in the child’s life and positive parental support aided by text on risk and protective factors

  4. Child network map in the workbook

(5) Children of incarcerated parents9
  • Provide knowledge on child of incarcerated parents

  • Discuss how to be a good parent from a distance

  • Increase understanding of children’s perceptions and needs in the situation

Risk and protective factors for child of incarcerated parent41
Attachment theory21
  1. Children’s reaction to parental incarceration

  2. How children are affected by parental incarceration

  3. Common questions and worries of children

  4. Specific needs of children with incarcerated parents and how I can help my child

  1. Group reflection from a text on the own child’s reaction and my own response as a parent

  2. Discussion on how the child is affected, what the child does not dare to ask and how to help the child to ask and talk

  3. Discussion and sharing of ideas aided by text on children’s needs, questions and worries

(6) Conflicts, violence and security19
  • Provide knowledge of the effect of violence on a child

  • Discuss how to handle anger

Developmental psychology42
Risk/protective factors43
  1. Reflection on my own expressions and reactions of anger

  2. Discussion on how children are affected by violence

  3. Taking the child’s perspective on violence

  4. My own view on children and violence

  1. Writing reflections and potential change in the workbook aided by text on violence and advice on anger management

  2. Group discussions from text and examples

  3. Film ‘I said I had a nightmare’ – the child’s perspective on experiencing violence and group discussion afterwards

  4. Value-based activity with group reflections

(7) My challengesNo specified article
  • Reflect on personal challenges as parent

  • Establish course of action to become the parent I want

Self-efficacy – Social Cognitive Theory26
  1. Reflection on how I want to be as a parent versus what I do

  2. Discussion on challenges that can be influenced

  3. Reflection on the parent I want to be

  1. Discussion in smaller groups aided by text

  2. Poem read to the group followed by discussion on challenges, list examples on white board and divide as possible/not possible to influence

  3. Resources I need and steps I will take to become the parent I want to be, written in workbook

(8) Five parenting roles5
  • Explore parenthood based on five roles

  • Identify strengths and target for change in my parenting

Theory on five different roles in parenting45
  1. Reflection on my own relation to the five different roles in parenthood

  2. Discussion on challenges that can be influenced

  1. Group reflection based on text on the five roles, ‘lover giver’, ‘caregiver’, ‘teacher of life’, ‘teacher of relations’ and ‘boundary setter’, what the roles include and the function, examples of situations with a child for each role, how much do I have of the role

(9) Fresh start, reunion and group closureNo specified article
  • Discussing the importance of preparing yourself and the family for the reunion

  • Reflect on my own development

  1. Discussion on challenges and facilitators for reunion

  2. Discussion on not getting to reunite and

  3. Looking back on values and learning from the previous sessions

  1. Discussion based on an example in text, and discussion on how form a good reunion aided by advice in text

  2. Discussion on feelings and how to help the child without reunion

  3. Going through the workbook and writing down things to bring into the continued parenting

(10) Topic of choiceNo specified articleIncluded as sessions 3 to 9, never as the last session.Topic of importance for the group, for example,
drug addiction, social services, parenting organisations, child psychiatry
  • CRC, Convention on the Rights of the Child.