Table 3

Adjusted ORs for maternal CVD risk factors before and during pregnancy

VariableAdjusted ORs (95% CI)
All preterm
(<37 weeks, n=411)
Late preterm
(32–36 weeks, n=249)
Early preterm
(20–31 weeks, n=162)
Maternal age0.99 (0.97 to 1.02)0.99 (0.96 to 1.02)0.99 (0.95 to 1.02)
Hypertension
 Chronic hypertension2.23 (0.75 to 6.64)1.01 (0.24 to 4.30)4.58 (1.40 to 15.05)*
 Gestational hypertension1.95 (0.64 to 4.99)2.20 (0.73 to 6.62)1.08 (0.21 to 5.49)
 Pre-eclampsia13.49 (6.01 to 30.27)*10.62 (4.58 to 24.60)*17.98 (7.55 to 42.82)*
 Diabetes3.06 (1.12 to 8.41)*3.42 (1.17 to 9.95)*2.44 (0.74 to 8.10)
Race/ethnicity
 White
 Hispanic0.92 (0.65 to 1.30)0.95 (0.65 to 1.39)0.90 (0.56 to 1.43)
 Black1.45 (0.48 to 4.38)1.50 (0.43 to 5.29)1.58 (0.41 to 6.06)
 Asian1.14 (0.74 to 1.77)1.21 (0.74 to 1.97)1.09 (0.59 to 2.01)
 Other1.26 (0.63 to 2.51)0.81 (0.34 to 1.92)2.22 (0.99 to 4.99)
Smoking status2.02 (0.73 to 5.58)1.29 (0.36 to 4.58)3.60 (1.14 to 11.41)*
Total cholesterol, mg/dL
 1st quartile
 2nd quartile1.68 (0.98 to 2.89)1.79 (0.96 to 3.34)**1.64 (0.81 to 3.32)**
 3rd quartile1.69 (0.85 to 3.34)2.23 (1.02 to 4.84)**1.05 (0.41 to 2.67)**
 4th quartile1.95 (0.78 to 4.88)2.32 (0.81 to 6.63)**1.60 (0.46 to 5.49)**
HDL, mg/dL
 1st quartile
 2nd quartile1.04 (0.63 to 1.71)1.28 (0.69 to 2.38)0.60 (0.29 to 1.22)
 3rd quartile1.15 (0.63 to 2.10)1.12 (0.50 to 2.48)1.09 (0.46 to 2.55)
 4th quartile0.90 (0.42 to 1.95)0.91 (0.32 to 2.63)0.81 (0.26 to 2.49)
LDL, mg/dL
 1st quartile
 2nd quartile0.86 (0.53 to 1.39)0.99 (0.59 to 1.66)**1.15 (0.64 to 1.07)**
 3rd quartile0.55 (0.30 to 1.01)0.87 (0.46 to 1.64)**0.46 (0.21 to 1.01)**
 4th quartile0.78 (0.34 to 1.77)1.01 (0.39 to 2.64)**1.14 (0.39 to 3.33)**
Triglycerides, mg/dL
 1st quartile
 2nd quartile0.73 (0.48 to 1.11)0.87 (0.55 to 1.39)0.53 (0.30 to 0.95)
 3rd quartile0.78 (0.50 to 1.20)0.83 (0.51 to 1.37)0.68 (0.38 to 1.23)
 4th quartile1.03 (0.62 to 1.70)1.00 (0.56 to 1.80)1.07 (0.55 to 2.06)
  • ** P<0.05 for trend. aORs adjusted for all co-variables listed in Table 2.

  • *Statistically significant at 95% confidence level

  • CVD, cardiovascular disease; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.