Table 2

Clavien-Dindo Classification of complications

GradeDefinition
IAny deviation from the normal postoperative course without the need for pharmacological treatment or surgical, endoscopic and radiological interventions. Allowed therapeutic regimes are as follows: drugs as anti-emetics, anti-pyretics, analgesics, diuretics, electrolytes and physiotherapy. This grade also includes wound infections opened at the bedside.
IIRequiring pharmacological treatment with drugs other than such allowed for grade I complications. Blood transfusions and total parenteral nutrition are also included.
IIIRequiring surgical, endoscopic or radiological intervention.
IIIaIntervention not under general anaesthesia.
IIIbIntervention under general anaesthesia.
IVLife-threatening complication requiring ICU management.
IVaSingle-organ dysfunction (including dialysis).
IVbMultiorgan dysfunction.
VDeath of a patient.